Article
Summary

Many countries have included agriculture as one of the sectors where they intend to obtain significant greenhouse gas emission reductions. In Norway, the dairy-beef sector, in particular, has been targeted for considerable emission cuts. Despite publicly expressed interest within the agricultural sector for reducing emissions, significant measures have yet to be implemented. In this paper, we draw on qualitative data from Norway when examining the extent the wider agri-food network around farmers promotes or restrains the transition toward low-emission agricultural production. A qualitative analysis based on interviews with key stakeholders from various parts of the agri-food network of dairy-beef indicates that, if it is up to the dairy-beef system itself, it will develop in the direction of continued increased production volumes and increased efficiency in production, combined with moderate measures to reduce emissions. There is an obvious reluctance to stimulate the consumer demand toward other products or meat products with reduced emissions because such a solution would complicate full exploitation of existing agricultural resources and hence could bring considerable negative economic consequences. Another factor limiting the scope and drive towards a low-carbon production is that the effects of various potential climate measures do not appear as unambiguous. Our study indicates that the dairy-beef sector will likely not reach the goal of reduced emissions from its own initiatives. Rather, significant changes would probably require both push and pull support from forces outside the agricultural system. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-020-10134-5


Article
Summary

Meeting targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture will require the implementation of effective mitigation measures. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has recently recognised that to succeed we need to understand more about the conditions within which mitigation measures are applied, and for this, they note, we need insights from social science disciplines including sociology. We addressed this knowledge gap by using the concept of path‐dependency and lock‐in to explore barriers to change in dairy/beef systems in Norway. A qualitative survey of 29 farms found that changing parenting, recreational and spousal role expectations are driving farmers towards intensification (and thus higher emissions) in order to purchase milking robots, which, in turn, provide increased time for the expected role changes. Structural change is thus predominantly directed towards farm continuity which is making it increasingly difficult to meet mitigation targets in the future. The study illustrates how mitigation measures might be made more effective by understanding and addressing the broader cultural/structural environment within which farmers and their families operate. Sociologia Ruralis, https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12277


Article
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Decisions regarding second home owners' position in a host community (assigned rights, influence and further privileges - or the lack of such) have a moral dimension. At the core of the issue is the question of how local resources should be distributed between year-round residents and second home owners as a kind of hybrid between tourists and part-time residents. In this chapter, moral considerations regarding this issue are presented and explained by referring to research conducted in Norway. The chapter gives an account for two different approaches to social organization (a sedentarist perspective and a mobilities paradigm perspective) that may be used as a basis for policy concerning second home owners' position, and the moral implications of these two approaches are discussed. It concludes that the question of second home owners' position in the host community is a moral dilemma, where any solution may bring about unfortunate results from various perspectives. Thus, social scientists' role should be to make sure that every perspective and potential consequences inform the debates, so that decision makers at various levels can make well-considered decisions in this matter. I Hall, C.M. og D. Müller (red.) The Routledge handbook of second home tourism and mobilities, s. 258-266. London: Routledge


Article
Summary

Second home owners are conspicuous stakeholders in many rural areas, and their understanding of what would be the morally right position for them to occupy in the host community matters not only to themselves but also to the local authorities and potentially affected residents. Based on interviews with 23 owners of second homes in rural municipalities in Norway, this article examines second home owners' understanding of their own group's moral worth in their rural host communities and their expectations of receiving – or not receiving – distributional goods and other forms of recognition. Both the humble and the reward-collecting perspective on second home owners' position are based on the perception of the rural community as weak and dependent upon second home owners' presence. Second home owners with a humble perspective think this unbalanced relationship is unpleasant, which weighs against the suggestion that second home owners be granted greater political power. Sociologia Ruralis. doi: 10.1111/soru.12083


Article
Summary

Forskning viser at det er større sannsynlighet for å bli overvektig hvis man bor på bygda enn hvis man bor i byen. For å redusere denne ulikheten må vi avdekke hvordan stedsspesifikke kulturelle og sosiale miljøer har innvirkning på helseatferden vår. Dette fordrer en langt mer helhetlig forskningstilnærming til overvektsproblematikken enn det vi hittil har sett. Tidsskrift for Den norske Legeforening 134, s. 1585-1586 https://tidsskriftet.no/article/3226700/


Article
Summary

Når spørsmålet om kommunesammenslåing kommer til våre hjemkommuner, rives ellers gode venner mellom ideologier. Parti står mot parti og kamerat mot kamerat. Lekfolk mot eksperter og by mot land – og kommunestrukturen består.

Kommunene – velferdsstatens livåre – synes å komme i klem mellom et lokalnivå som spiller distrikts- og demokratikortet og et Storting med beslutnings- og styringsvegring. Kommuneinn-delingsspørsmålet skaker ikke bare det lokale selvstyrets fundament, men griper direkte inn i en av de mest stabile motsetningene i norsk politikk: «sentrum-periferi». Hvorfor er kommunefloka så vanskelig å nøste opp i?

Plan 02/2014, s. 10-15


Article
Summary

Many rural communities are experiencing a reduced full-time population who are to a certain degree being replaced by an influx of part-time dwellers from urban areas. This paper examines how second home owners' presence can be perceived as a valuable compensation for a reduced full-time population by the remaining local residents, when it comes to the latter's social needs. The analysis is based on in-depth interviews with six local residents from the same sparsely populated municipality in Norway. Despite all of them wanting more neighbours, their valuations of second home owners' presence were strikingly different. The findings indicate that second home owners' presence was highly appreciated as a social compensation for a reduced full-time population, as long as local contextual circumstances did not invite a comparison with new permanent residents as a possible alternative. When the latter was the case, second home owners' presence was assessed as an insufficient contribution rather than a social resource. As such, local residents' valuation of second home owners' presence in sparsely inhabited areas may depend to a large degree on the residents' perceptions of the possibilities for future in-migration in their local community. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol 13 (4):317-331


Article
Summary

Dominating strands within the research literature on second homes explain social conflicts between rural hosting and visiting second home populations by describing their differing perspectives on rural development. Such presentations suggest that locals are likely to welcome new developments in order to enhance the economic viability of their rural communities, whereas second home owners advocate conservation of the rural idyll that attracted them in the first place. In this paper, we argue that these simplified differences conceptualised in the contemporary second home research literature are faulty. By analysing 42 qualitative in-depth interviews with second home owners and locals in four Norwegian municipalities, we demonstrate how both locals and second home owners are protective of their rural idyll and, at the very same time, open to rural development. More exactly, locals and second home owners alike generally welcome new activities only when they do not take place in their own vicinity. As such, both categories' interests reflect a “Not in my backyard” (NIMBY) line of logic. Hence, we argue that the major lines of conflict concerning land use in second home municipalities do not run between locals and visitors but between those initiating different kinds of new developments and those appreciating the hitherto existing qualities and appearance of the areas of development localisation. Nevertheless, the influx of second home owners is still influencing the potential for land use conflicts due to the high number of actors present in the same location. In effect, crowding a rural area with second home developments generates more “backyards” and thus guardians of these. Journal of Rural Studies 30 (1): 41-51


Report

Rapporten fokuserer på hva som har betydning for bønders følelse av yrkesstolthet. I den sammenheng blir yrkesstolthet forstått som en emosjon basert på individets samspill med omverdenen. Rapporten viser at bøndenes yrkesstolthet avhenger av hvordan de vurderer egen utøvelse av bonderollen opp mot enkelte verdier som står sterkt i landbrukskulturen. Videre er det funn som peker i retning av at valgfrihet knyttet til det å bli bonde har betydning. Bøndenes oppfatning av yrkesgruppens bidrag til det norske samfunnet viser seg også å ha betydning for deres følelse av yrkesstolthet – en oppfatning som kan sees som et resultat av sosialisering. Når det gjelder påvirkning fra bøndenes sosiale omgivelser, viser rapporten at det er tilbakemeldinger fra bøndenes nære relasjoner som har betydning for deres yrkesstolthet. Tilbakemeldinger fra storsamfunnet har ikke signifikant betydning, da bøndene oppfatter negative tilbakemeldinger fra dette hold som basert på manglende kunnskap og forståelse. Rapporten bygger på både et kvalitativt og et kvantitativt datamateriale: 16 kvalitative samtaleintervjuer med bønder fra 4 fylker i Midt-Norge-traktene, og Norsk senter for bygdeforsknings spørreundersøkelse Trender i Norsk landbruk 2004 (N=1716).