• Katrina Rønningen
  • Auvikki de Boon
  • Camilla Sandström
  • Ugo Arbieu
  • Inger Hansen
  • Lisa Lehnen
  • Agnese Marino
  • Mari Pohja-Mykrä
  • Camilla Risvoll
  • Geir-Harald Strand
Article
Summary

Policy mixes (i.e. the total structure of policy processes, strategies, and instruments) are complex constructs that can quickly become incoherent, inconsistent, and incomprehensive. This is amplified when the policy mix strives to meet multiple objectives simultaneously, such as in the case of large carnivore policy mixes. Building on Rogge and Reichardt's analytical framework for the analysis of policy mixes, we compare the policy mixes of Norway, Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands, Germany (specifically Saxony and Bavaria), and Spain (specifically Castilla y León). The study shows that the large carnivore policy mixes in the case countries show signs of lacking vertical and horizontal coherence in the design of policy processes, weak consistency between objectives and designated policy instruments, and, as a consequence, lacking comprehensiveness. We conclude that creating consistent, coherent, and comprehensive policy mixes that build on multiple objectives requires stepping away from sectorized policy development, toward a holistic, systemic approach, strong collaborative structures across policy boundaries and regions, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders, and constant care and attention to address all objectives simultaneously rather than in isolation.


Article
Summary

This article discusses how studying rhythms can help us better understand and manage spatiotemporal tensions in social-ecological landscapes, highlighting the potential of rhythmanalysis as a tool for crossing scientific and methodological borders. The empirical material is from a study of human and non-human users and uses of the highly valued Dovrefjell mountain area in Norway, with particular attention to the much-debated Snøheim Road. We take an in-depth view of Three different, but interrelated, rhythms at Dovrefjell and discuss how intervening through rhythms can be a fruitful way to approach landscape management. By simultaneously ‘listening’ to different rhythms, this approach helps us to understand and reduce spatiotemporal tensions between social, cultural and ecological uses of a landscape. Landscape Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2018.1535652


Article
Summary

Worldwide semi-natural habitats of high biological value are in decline. Consequently, numerous AgriEnvironment Schemes (AESs) intended to halt biodiversity loss within these habitats have been implemented. One approach has been the application of “adaptive management”, where scientific knowledge is applied alongside the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of stakeholders in order to establish an integrated approach that is adjusted as outcomes are assessed. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of the adaptive management approach of Norway’s Action Plan for Hay Meadows (APHM). Twenty-nine hay meadows from fourteen farms in the county of Møre og Romsdal were ecologically surveyed over a 2 year period. Interviews were also conducted with owners and land managers to explore TEK and management issues. The interdisciplinary study found that the disembedding of hay meadow management from its initial commercial purpose (in particular the loss of much of the livestock from the region) has contributed to a significant loss of TEK – which is now largely limited to knowledge of how the fields were managed recently. While, the APHM is limiting biodiversity decline by promoting traditional practices there were indications that the standardisation of management actions might negatively affect species composition in the long term. More critically, continued farm abandonment within the region means that without alternatives to management by farmers many of these meadows are likely to disappear in the next couple of decades. We conclude that adaptive management provides an effective short-term means of preserving hay meadows, but long term conservation will require a means of addressing the continued decline of local farming communities. Land Use Policy. Volum 72, s. 259-269


Article
Summary

The conservation of nature in Norway has mainly been grounded on the idea of preservation of wilderness areas, while the cultural influence within many of these areas often has been overlooked. The present study shows that many of these conservation areas hardly can be defined as undisturbed nature. GIS methods have been used to evaluate an important aspect of the cultural impact in conservation areas, namely deforestation. By combining a new high-resolution deforestation model with the nature conservation areas in Norway, we found that many of the nature conservation areas are highly influenced by previous land use. Around 11.7 % (3,629 km2) of the national parks, 18.4 % (3,183 km2) of the landscape conservation areas and 13.7 % (774 km2) of the nature reserves have been deforested. Given the present trend in land use abandonment and in a historical perspective the extremely low outfield resource utilization, these landscapes will be ecologically and aesthetically changed by future reforestation. Given the presented results, we recommend an in-depth study of the cultural impact within nature conservation areas in Norway. Kart og Plan, Vol. 74, pp. 210–222


Article
Summary

Does it make sense to talk about a crisis in agriculture in one of the world’s wealthiest economies when significant quantities of public money are invested in the agricultural sector? Moreover, should one worry about the robustness of food production if it takes place at the margins of economic efficiency and where, consequently, importing food seems the simpler and cheaper option? Should agriculture in marginal areas have any role whatsoever in food production? Against the backdrop of national and international discourses on the need for increasing food production, this article analyses developments in Northern Norway in the aftermath of a year of major production crisis. The analysis uses large statistical data sets combined with qualitative information to draw a picture of agriculture in this region. We contend that marginal areas are important for maintaining agricultural production capacity but are unlikely to play a significant role in any potential increase in productivity unless new pathways are chosen for agricultural policies and production. However, the ability to maintain agricultural production systems and levels is being threatened by both economic and structural changes in agriculture and decreasing skills and knowledge of how to maintain and develop robust farming systems in these regions. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 21 (1):51-69


Article
Summary

The conservation of nature in Norway has mainly been grounded on the idea of preservation of wilderness areas, while the cultural influence within many of these areas often has been overlooked. The present study shows that many of these conservation areas hardly can be defined as undisturbed nature. GIS methods have been used to evaluate an important aspect of the cultural impact in conservation areas, namely deforestation. By combining a new high-resolution deforestation model with the nature conservation areas in Norway, we found that many of the nature conservation areas are highly influenced by previous land use. Around 11.7 % (3,629 km2) of the national parks, 18.4 % (3,183 km2) of the landscape conservation areas and 13.7 % (774 km2) of the nature reserves have been deforested. Given the present trend in land use abandonment and in a historical perspective the extremely low outfield resource utilization, these landscapes will be ecologically and aesthetically changed by future reforestation. Given the presented results, we recommend an in-depth study of the cultural impact within nature conservation areas in Norway. Kart og Plan 2014 ;Volum 74, årg. 107.(3) s. 210-222


Article
Summary

Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i at grunneiere og gårdbrukere som er deltakere i Utvalgte kulturlandskap kan oppfatte utfordringer og muligheter ved ordningen ulikt. Dette blir belyst gjennom å se nærmere på hvordan deltakerne i henholdsvis Leka og Nordherad har forskjellige forhold til landskapet eiendommen og gårdsdriften inngår i. Personlige verdisyn, bakgrunn og holdninger samvirker med mer praktiske, driftsmessige forhold. Studien viser at forholdet til både landskap og gårdsdrift påvirkes av i hvilken grad det finnes utsikter til at neste generasjon vil ta over. Det konkluderes med at det siste er en viktig faktor med tanke på i hvilken utstrekning UKL vil være en suksess på lengre sikt. Tidsskriftet Utmark,nr 1, 2013, https://www.utmark.org


  • Katrina Rønningen
  • O.I. Vistad
  • T. Skjeggedal
  • H. Berglann
  • H.C. Bugge
  • A. Nordenhaug
  • G. Swensen
  • H. Øian
Article
Summary

This paper concerns the use of voluntary, but formally binding private-public partnerships in use, maintenance and conservation of cultural landscapes. We have studied two of the totally 22 "Selected cultural landscapes in agriculture" (UKL) that have been given special national attention due to their documented landscape qualities (including bio-diversity and cultural heritage), and local will to participate in this national project. Our three research questions related to UKL are: 1) How well are landscapes, bio-diversities and cultural heritages maintained? 2) What characterizes local socio-cultural responses concerning support, accept and cooperation, and how do the farmers understand their roles as producers of social and environmental goods? 3) How well are the needs for perpetuity and, in particular, the legal and contractual aspects, ensured? The study is based on interviews, document analysis, participation in meetings and field studies. We have found that the UKL model is functioning well, both in terms of social relations and resource maintenance. The perpetuity and stability is quite fragile, since the partnerships are insufficiently grounded in legal regulations. Maintaining UKL will require continuous political and economic will on all administrative levels, and continued support and enthusiasm among the participants. A second concern is the future of farming in these areas; protection of important cultural and natural heritage depend on continuous use and maintenance, and many of the farms and properties involved face highly uncertain prospect with respect to successors in the next generation. Tidsskriftet Utmark,nr 1, 2013 https://www.utmark.org