Article
Summary

Within Norwegian agriculture, combined dairy and beef production has been identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and thus targeted for significant reductions. The article examines the path dependency of the dairy and beef production system in Norway and focuses on identifying lock-ins. The authors used qualitative methods to gather information from stakeholder meetings in Trøndelag and Rogaland counties. They explored the stakeholders’ responses to two different visions of agriculture in the future: the improved utilisation of outfields using Norwegian Red cattle and increasing production per animal by using feed concentrates. Six key areas of lock-in were identified: technology investment, culture, feeding strategy, policy, access to new farmland through moorland conversion, and ownership of the climate issue. The findings suggest that the current pathway in agriculture is strongly locked into production orientation through these lock-ins, making a production reduction option difficult to implement. There was also widespread belief among the stakeholders that the system of combined dairy and beef production was a climate-friendly option, suggesting that farmers are not convinced that a change in this direction is required. The authors conclude that the option of reducing production would be difficult to implement without addressing the multiple lock-in effects.


Article
Summary

The Norwegian government and the farmers’ organisations have agreed that the agricultural sector must cut GHG emissions with 5 mill tonn i CO2-equivalents before 2030. At the same time the official policy of the government is to of increase production of food in Norway. For meat and milk producers, this is extra problematic, as large parts of the greenhouse gas emissions are linked to biological processes in livestock that are the very core of their production. Is it possible for the agricultural sector to reach both of these goals? Are there fixed structures and policy paths that make agriculture not able to achieve these goals? Maybe we need another way of thinking about agriculture and GHG emissions to solve this problem? Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift 37(01):59-70


Article
Summary

In this essay, I will reflect upon what has been sociology's contribution to understanding the emergence and development of nationalism and how sociology can contribute to understanding nationalism's present and future through a property rights perspective. The essay will discuss, in particular, how historical sociological analysis of property rights and property rights regimes may be central to understanding nationalism past and future. After a general and brief discussion on the current, so‐called return of nationalism, the essay starts with discussion of some late enlightenment proto‐sociologists, suggesting that these writers actually analysed some crucial early dynamics of property and sovereignty which is central to understanding nationalism. The essay then moves on to suggests why a property rights focus might be a useful perspective to understanding nationalism in the 21st century. https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12610


Book
Summary

Etter kommune- og fylkesvalet 2019 ser vi klare teikn på at det er eit distriktsopprør på gang i Noreg. Frå media høyrer vi om alt frå motstand mot vindmøller, høgare ferjeprisar og alle former for sentralisering: det vera seg kommune- og regionreform, politireform, eller nedlegging av sjukehus og studiestader. Konklusjonen i denne boka er at det er ikkje eitt, men mange distriktsopprør som ulmar her i landet. Felles for alle er at dei tappar politisk energi ifrå motsetninga mellom sentrum og periferi, som den verdsberømte norske statsvitaren Stein Rokkan i si tid påviste var ei grunnleggande konfliktlinje i norsk politikk. Forfattarane i denne boka tek utgangspunkt i denne konfliktdimensjonen, og prøver å fange og analysere kva som ligg under desse opprøra, kva dei har ført til så langt og kva dei kan føre til av endringar i framtida. Kapitla er skrivne av noen av våre fremste samfunnsforskarar innan distrikts- og ruralforskinga. Samla gir dei eit overordna og oppdatert blikk på den norske konfliktdimensjonen sentrum–periferi. Dreyers Forlag Oslo AS


Book
Summary

Skal bioøkonomien overta når oljen tar slutt? En slik overgang vil innebære en rekke endringer innen blant annet jordbruk, skogbruk, fiskeri, akvakultur, biovitenskap og industri. En «smart» bioøkonomi vil kreve utvikling på tvers av disse biosektorene. Å få til en overgang som også er samfunnsmessig akseptabel for befolkningen, krever kloke politiske beslutninger, og kunnskapsgrunnlaget må styrkes. Satsing på bioøkonomi reiser en rekke nye spørsmål: Hva vil det innebære i praksis at bioøkonomi får en større rolle? Hvordan styrke omstillingen til en mer biobasert økonomi? Hvilke initiativer og virkemidler må til for å gjennomføre et skifte fra olje- til biobasert økonomi? Hva skal man forstå med begrepet bioøkonomi? Etter oljen. Vår bioøkonomiske fremtid diskuterer forskjellige aspekter, muligheter og utfordringer ved en slik overgang. Boka er aktuell for studenter, aktører i næringslivet, politikere, myndigheter, organisasjoner, forskere og ikke minst den interesserte samfunnsborger. Boka er en del av prosjektet BIOSMART, finansiert av Norges forskningsråd og ledet av Ruralis - Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning. Forlag: Cappelen Damm akademisk


Article
Summary

sues of land distribution and ownership matter in an industrialized and post-industrial world. In rural areas, land is still the livelihood of a large portion of the people and thus central to the viability of local communities. Land ownership is also central to national politics through issues of self-sufficiency, food sovereignty and recourse management. This study applies a historical approach combined with system dynamics modeling to the case of Norwegian odelsrett between 1814 and 2014. The odelsrett is a familial right of redemption regarding landed, agricultural property, which has roots going back more than a millennium in Norway. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of the odelsrett on the distribution of land ownership in Norway as a case. The results indicate that the odelsrett in Norway helped to increase wider distribution of land amongst the agricultural population only with the help of external historical events. We furthermore demonstrate how land ownership is an exclusive right, and how the legal system of which the odelsrett is part is designed to and operates to reproduce this right. Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 72, Pages 11-22


Article
Summary

This article engages in the debate about the origins and nature of nationalism. The argument is a modernist one, but it qualifies this narrative by focusing on landed property rights as the basis for the emergence and development of nationalism. The argument complements Ernest Gellner's theory of nationalism by suggesting that nationalism was at first a landed agrarian phenomenon which later became ideologically functional to industrial society due to its property assumptions. A historical‐sociological comparative analysis of land rights and national development in the United States and Norway between 1770 and 1884 forms the basis of the argument. The key point is that nationalism emerged as a consequence of the emergence of the more widespread individual ownership of land, which spawned the idea of national popular sovereignty. This original connection to property rights made nationalism ideologically functional for industrial society. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, vol 18 (3)


Article
Summary

The early nineteenth century was a transitional time in western Europe; from the old feudal and imperial order, modern nation states and capitalism emerged. The Norwegian nation state emerged out of the flames of the Napoleonic Wars in 1814. But changes in landed property structures in the eighteenth century lay the ground for Norwegian nationalism in the early nineteenth century. This article explores early nineteenth century nationalism through a focus on property rights and the positive view on the odesrett – an allodial right to land – arguing that an examination of the positive view on the odelsrett can shed new light on Norwegian nationalism in the early nineteenth century. Such an examination suggests that the Norwegian property structure contributed to reinforcing certain property rights element in the Norwegian nationalism where ownership of landed property and national, popular sovereignty were closely interconnected. Journal of historical sociology. Vol 31 (3)


Book
Summary

In the eighteenth century, before a national political movement took hold in either the United States or Norway, both countries were agrarian societies marked by widespread private land ownership. Tracing the emergence and development of national ideology in each, Eirik Magnus Fuglestad argues that land ownership became tied up with these national ideologies and was ultimately a central driver of nationalism. In this book, the United States and Norway emerge as propertied communities, shaped by historical narratives of self-government and by property regimes that linked popular sovereignty with land ownership. Covering the mid-eighteenth century through industrialization in the nineteenth century, this book lays the groundwork for understanding the rise of nationalism as an agrarian, landed phenomenon, which later became the foundation of industrial society. Published by Palgrave Macmillan


Report

Trender i norsk landbruk er en postal spørreundersøkelse blant norske gårdbrukere som gjennomføres av Ruralis – Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning. Undersøkelsen er blitt gjennomført hvert andre år siden 2002, som dermed gjør at årets undersøkelse er den niende i rekken. Målet er å få etablert en kvantitativ tidsserie som gir informasjon om utviklingen innen landbruket over tid. I tillegg til strukturelle sider ved landbruket, dekker spørreundersøkelsen også sosiokulturelle tema som ikke kommer frem i den registerbaserte statistikken. Rapporten består av fire hoveddeler: 1) Undersøkelsens formål og profil, 2) gjennomføring av undersøkelsen og metode, 3) resultater og hovedtrender fra undersøkelsen, og 4) ukommenterte frekvenstabeller med oversikt over hvordan deltakerne i undersøkelsen fordeler seg på de ulike svarkategoriene for hvert spørsmål.