Artikkel
Sammendrag

Despite a longstanding literature on small farm-households, there is limited consideration of small farms’ role in food and nutrition security (FNS) at territorial level. The purpose of this study is to provide insights about how small farms contribute to FNS at different territorial scales, by focusing on farmers' strategies and consequential FNS outcomes. Analysis is based on two years (2017–2019) of field work done with farmers and food system actors in SALSA reference regions culminating in a workshop done with research partners. We find that small farms deliver food and nutrition security and other socio-economic and environmental outcomes for the farm-household, at local, regional and global levels. The regional level is shown to be critical for small farms, as it provides the scale at which their diversity is realised. Understanding this diversity is a goal for both research and for effective support mechanisms for small farm integration, and the multiple public and private functions small farms can deliver should be higher on the policy agenda. Global Food Security, Volume 26, 100427


Bok
Sammendrag

Exploring the ways in which culture, systems of value, and ethics impact agriculture, this volume addresses contemporary land questions and conditions for agricultural land management. Throughout, the editors and contributors consider a range of issues, including pressure on farmland, international and global trade relations, moral and ethical questions, and implications for governance. The focus of Finance or Food? is land use in Australia, Canada, and Norway, chosen for their commonalities as well as their differences. With reference to these specific national contexts, the contributors explore political, ecological, and ethical debates concerning food production, alternative energy, and sustainability. The volume argues that recognition of food, finance, energy, and climate crises is driving investments and reframing the strategies of development agencies. At the same time, food producers, small farmers, and pastoralists facing eviction from their land are making their presence felt in this debate, not just locally, but in national policy arenas and international fora as well. This volume investigates the many ways in which this process is occurring and draws out the cultural implications of new developments in global land use. An important intervention into a timely debate, Finance or Food? will be essential reading for both academics and policymakers. Publisher: University of Toronto Press


Artikkel
Sammendrag

It is argued that the pattern of landownership in Scotland is inequitable and inefficient, since the land (and its associated outputs) is concentrated in only a few, private hands. Critics argue that the scale of private landownership in Scotland maintains historical inequalities and injustices, and that alternative forms of land occupancy and smaller land holdings could lead to more productive land use and associated socio-economic benefits. With its rural political history of decentralization and multifunctional agriculture, Norway provides a fascinating and highly relevant comparison to the history of Scottish land ownership and land use policy, due in part to the similar population size, yet significant difference in the proportion of the population with a stake in land ownership management. The so-called “Norwegian model” (i.e. the pattern of land tenure, in tandem with rural and agricultural policies) is heralded as the goal for equitable landownership and sustainable land management that is the aspiration of Scottish policy-makers. This case study discusses the consequences of historic and potential future changes to the Norwegian model and implications for the comparative case of Scottish land reform, including the implementation of measures within the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2016.


Bok
Sammendrag

Financialization is the increased influence of financial actors and logics on social and economic life, and is one of the key drivers transforming food systems and rural economies around the world. The premise of this book is that the actions of financial actors, and their financial logics, are transforming agri-food systems in profound ways. It is shown that although financialization is a powerful dynamic, some recent developments suggest that the rollout of financialization is contradictory and uneven in different spaces and markets. The book examines cases in which state regulation or re-regulation and social movement resistance are setting roadblocks or speed bumps in the path of financialization, resulting in a ‘cooling off’ of investment, as well as the other side of the argument where there is evidence of a ‘heating up’. The authors address not only the limits to financialization, but also the mechanisms through which financial entities are able to penetrate and re-shape agri-food industries. This book provides both a comparative analysis of financialization blending, and empirical findings with conceptual insights. It explores the connection between financialization, food systems, and rural transformation by critically examining: the concept of financialization and how food and farming are being financialized; the impacts of financialization in the food industry; and financialization in farming and forestry – along with the impacts this has on rural people and communities. This is a timely book, bringing together concrete case studies, from around the globe, to reveal the operations and impacts of finance capital in the ‘space’ of agri-food. EARTHSCAN from ROUTLEDGE. Earthscan Food and Agriculture series


Artikkel
Sammendrag

The contribution of small farms to local food supply, food security and food sovereignty is widely acknowledged at a global level. In the particular case of Europe, they often are seen as an alternative to large and specialised farms. Assessing the real role of small farms has been limited by a lack of information, as small farms are frequently omitted from agricultural censuses and national statistics. It is also well acknowledged that small farms differ widely, and are distributed according to different spatial patterns across Europe, fulfilling different roles according to the agriculture and territorial characteristics of each region. This paper presents the result of a novel classification of small farms at NUTS-3 level in Europe, according to the relevance of small farms in the agricultural and territorial context of each region, and based on a typology of small farms considering different dimensions of farm size. The maps presented result from an extensive data collection and variables selected according to European wide expert judgement, analysed with advanced cluster procedures. The results provide a fine grained picture of the role of small farms at the regional level in Europe today, and are expected to support further data analysis and targeted policy intervention. Land Use Policy 75: 784-798


Artikkel
Sammendrag

The six articles in this special issue explore alternative pathways of agricultural modernisation. The authors argue that such pathways, and the strategies needed to embark on them, are commonly overlooked in policy and the formal agricultural knowledge and information system which tend to concentrate on the conventional, unilinear, modernisation trajectory that involves scale-enlargement, specialisation and, more and more, digitalisation. The focus of these papers is on development strategies that can increase the resilience of farms, the agricultural and agri-food sectors and rural areas, and that can enhance the prosperity and well-being of farmers and rural communities, issues of growing importance. The papers set out what these alternative strategies might mean for the future of farming, and how we might move towards them. Four theoretical, but also practical, issues that will influence this transition play a key role here: resilience, prosperity and well-being, governance and the role of knowledge and learning. Journal of Rural Studies. Volum 59, s. 194-196. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.09.018


Artikkel
Sammendrag

This paper analyses the profound structural transformations that took place in Norway's horticulture industry between 1999 and 2010. The aggregate industrial outputs from the industry remained stable in this period. However, the number of horticulture farms dropped by 40.5% and the remaining farms became accordingly larger. We analyse how this development was related to changing labour strategies on Norwegian farms during this period, in part affected by labour market deregulation following the EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007. The analysis utilises Agricultural Census data covering the full population of horticulture farms in Norway in 1999 (N=5,105) and all farms in the country in 2010 (N=46,624, of which 3036 now were horticulture farms). Results suggest that the enhanced availability of inexpensive and flexible global labour is strongly associated with a stepwise proletarisation of Norwegian horticulture. Family labour is being systematically replaced by wage labour and domestic workers are being replaced by lowwage migrant workers. European Countryside. Volum 10, hefte 4. DOI: 10.2478/euco-2018-0030


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Melkeproduksjon har siden etterkrigstiden vært regnet som selve bærebjelken i det norske landbruket, men i løpet av de siste 20 årene har næringen stått over for en strukturutvikling som vil kunne endre melkeproduksjonens rolle i framtiden. Utviklingen drives frem av nasjonal politikk, teknologiske innovasjoner og nye driftsformer. Resultatet er færre og større produsenter.