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Denne rapporten tar utgangspunkt i oppfølgingsintervjuer gjennomført høsten 2021 med et utvalg av de 24 naturbaserte reiselivsaktørene som ble intervjuet i 2017 og 2018 som del av det tverrfaglige forskningsprosjektet BIOTOUR. På bakgrunn av Covid-19 pandemien oppstod det et behov og en interesse for å undersøke nærmere hvordan disse bedriftene håndterte utfordringene som fulgte med pandemien. Rapporten belyser hvilke konsekvenser pandemien fikk for små naturbaserte reiselivsbedrifter, herunder bedriftsledernes strategier i møte med pandemien, eventuelle endringer av disse, fordeler og ulemper ved å være en liten bedrift i krisetider, læringsmomenter og erfaringer som bedriftsledere, samt deres tanker om framtiden for naturbasert reiseliv i Norge. Rapporten inngår i det tverrfaglige forskningsprosjektet «BIOTOUR – fra stedsbaserte ressurser til verdifulle opplevelser». Prosjektet ble ledet av Norges miljø- og biovitenskapelige universitet (NMBU) med Ruralis – Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning som en av partnerne. Prosjektet ble gjennomført i perioden 2016-2021, hvilket inkluderer et års forlengelse på grunn av Covid-19 pandemien. Hovedmålsetningen var å utforske nøkkelbetingelser for videreutvikling av naturbasert reiseliv i norsk bioøkonomi som sikrer næringsutvikling, robuste lokalsamfunn og bærekraftig ressursbruk. BIOTOUR ble finansiert av Norges Forskningsråd gjennom BIONÆR-programmet.


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Forfattere: Anders Mahlum Melås, Marit Aursand, Ida Grong Aursand, Bjørn Eidem, Silje Forbord, Gunn-Turid Kvam, Roald Sand, Inger Beate Standal, Grete Stokstad, Egil Petter Stræte og Margareth Øverland
Denne rapporten oppsummerer status for en rekke fôrråvarer og diskuterer ulike aspekter av bærekraft relatert til fôr og fôrsystem. Prosjektet har vært et samarbeid mellom forskere fra Ruralis – institutt for rural- og regionalforskning, SINTEF Ocean, NIBIO, NMBU Biovit og TFoU (nå SINTEF Digital). Arbeidet er finansiert av Forskningsmidlene for jordbruk og matindustri og egeninnsats fra brukerpartnere i prosjektet.


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Writers: Richard Helliwell, Carol Morris and Stephen Jones
The desire to govern antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal agriculture has gained renewed prominence in the UK and international policy and practice in response to growing concern about the impact of AMR infections on human and animal health. This article adopts a more-than-human approach inspired by assemblage and biopolitical thinking to explore how diverse actors work to assemble a regime of governance in animal agriculture through their efforts to tackle AMR. How agricultural animals are represented and positioned in this process, and the consequences of these efforts for broader agricultural animal–human relation in UK animal agriculture is also a concern. Qualitative, empirical material is produced from documents published by government, industry organisations, NGOs and retailers. We highlight the negotiated contingencies of actions on AMR in UK animal agriculture and reflect on the limited extent to which they constitute a new front in the regulation of agricultural animals. Sociologia Ruralis, https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12377


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Writers: Alexander Zahl-Thanem, Ellen Ersfjord, Gudveig Gjøsund, Reidun Heggem, Line Oldervoll, Tanja Plasil og Anne Margrethe Brigham
Denne sluttrapporten er en oppsummering av funn, konklusjoner og anbefalinger fra forskningsprosjektet “Kommunetilpasset forebygging og behandling av overvekt og fedme blant bygdebarn (KOMPASS)”. Prosjektet ble gjennomført i perioden 2018 til 2021, noe som inkluderer ett års forlengelse på grunn av koronapandemien. Hovedmålet med dette prosjektet har vært å frembringe kunnskap rundt betydningen av lokal kultur og fysisk bosted når det gjelder overvekt og fedme hos barn på bygda. Dette har blitt belyst ved å ta utgangspunkt i både barn og foreldres perspektiver, i tillegg til å ta utgangspunkt i problematikken sett fra ulike aktører som jobber med helsefremmende arbeid i rurale områder.


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Writers: Camilla Sandström & Katrina Rønningen

How to turn the different “ways of seeing” and “ways of knowing” into “ways of making” legitimate regulations, processes, and legal frameworks for the potential sharing of benefits and burdens of natural resources and places? Political science, geography, and anthropology are all concerned with power and its structuring effects; anthropology, however, provides a vital sensitivity toward contextual, cultural, and historical factors.

Environmental communication exercises power as a tool in processes of decolonization and struggles for self-determination, but also through the many mandatory requirements of planning and licensing processes, EIAs, participatory processes, and so on. Environmental communication may thus be used to understand power struggles and conflicts, while also itself shaping these struggles. These processes generally lack the tools to take multi-generational experiences, oral narratives, and local knowledge into consideration, while employing very narrow time perspectives. Anthropology thus provides a sorely needed approach that is crucial to mapping land use and meanings properly.


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Writer: Tommy Ruud
Statsforvalteren i Møre og Romsdal har ambisjoner om å få øket den økologiske jordbruksproduksjonen i fylket. Denne rapporten bygger på Ruralis’ undersøkelse av situasjonen i det økologiske jordbruket i Møre og Romsdal og hvilke muligheter og hindringer som finnes for økt økologisk produksjon per oktober-desember 2021. Undersøkelsen er basert på intervjuer og dokumentstudier. Rapporten bygger på 12 intervjuer av bønder, 2 intervjuer av rådgivere og 3 intervjuer av aktører i bearbeidelses- og distribusjonsleddet av enkelte verdikjeder, samt kommunikasjon med representanter for landbruksavdelinga hos Statsforvalteren. I tillegg er det lagt til grunn statistiske dokumenter og forskningslitteratur. Rapporten foreslår 21 tiltak for å bedre vilkårene, utnytte muligheter eller forsere hindringer innen den økologiske jordbruksproduksjonen i Møre og Romsdal, med sikte på at denne typen produksjon kan øke i fylket. Mogelegheiter for meir økologisk landbruk i Møre og Romsdal | Statsforvaltaren i Møre og Romsdal (statsforvalteren.no)


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Writers: Kreg Lindberg, Rita Moseng Sivertsvik and Magnar Forbord
There is a substantial and growing literature on the resilience of firms and destinations within tourism. Building on the concepts in Lindberg, Forbord, and Sivertsvik (2021), this study complements that literature by empirically assessing nature-based tourism’s (NBT’s) potential contribution to the resilience of destination communities via the factors that may affect that contribution. The study is based on a country-level assessment in Norway using quantitative and qualitative data derived from NBT firms, a new scale for understanding the contribution associated with firm-community relationships, and an evaluation of how firm motivations and life cycle stage may affect the contribution. Results indicated NBT makes a modest contribution overall, but that contribution may be more substantial in some aspects (e.g., with respect to catalyzing business networks and community identity) and in some communities (e.g., smaller communities where NBT potentially represents a larger part of the local economy). Some aspects of this contribution were predicted by firm motivations and life cycle stage. For example, firms in the growth stage may make larger contributions than firms in the decline stages.


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Writers: Lucy Szaboova, Madeleine Gustavsson & Rachel Turner
Building social resilience is important for fishing communities, whichglobally face unprecedented social and environmental change. Whilewomen’s direct and indirect contribution to fishing economies isincreasingly recognized, their contribution to the social resilience offisheries remains under-examined. Using interview and focus groupdata, we investigate women’s role in supporting the social resilienceof UK fishing communities and examine implications for women’swellbeing. Our findings reveal that beyond supporting the economicviability of fishing businesses, women help maintain the social fabricof fisheries and nurture the physical and mental wellbeing of fishingfamilies, often at a cost to their own material, social and emotionalwellbeing. Tensions between social resilience at the household orcommunity level and women’s individual wellbeing have importantimplications for fisheries policy, which rarely considers the widersocial context of fisheries. We identify ways in which women’s rolesand wellbeing can be included in decision-making and policy. Society & Natural Resources, Pages 59-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2021.2022259


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Et økt arealkrav i svinehold kan gi bedre dyrevelferd, men vil også føre til høyere kostnader for bonden. I denne rapporten vurderes de økonomiske effektene av en reduksjon av antall griser per bruk med en tredel utløst av en dobling av arealkravet sammenlignet med dagens regelverk. Beregningene er basert på to bruk med svinehold utarbeidet av Budsjettnemnda for jordbruket.


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This report summarizes the results and recommendations from the three-year project Smart technology for sustainable agriculture (SmaT, 2018-2021). SmaT was a collaboration between the Norwegian agricultural cooperative Felleskjøpet Agri, the Norwegian agricultural extension service Norsk landbrukssamvirke, the agricultural secondary school Mære landbruksskole, and researchers from Ruralis and NTNU. Technology-oriented farmers and other professionals have also taken part in the collaboration. The work was funded by the Agriculture and Food Industry Research Funds, and through in-kind contributions from the project’s user partners.


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Dette notatet er leveransen på forprosjektet «I retning av flere aktive og begeistrede, personlige skogeiere i Trøndelag». Forprosjektet er en del av det større prosjektet «Skogløftet – Skogklyngen i Trøndelag» som Arena Skog (nå WoodWorks! Cluster) har med Trøndelag fylkeskommune. Forprosjektet har to elementer. Det første elementet er en kartlegging av kunnskaps- og kompetansesystemet for skogbruk i Trøndelag i 2018, noe som gjøres gjennom å undersøke blant annet hvilke kunnskaps- og kompetansetilbud som faktisk ble gjennomført det kalenderåret. Det andre elementet er en analyse av skogfondskontoene i Trøndelag, og derigjennom en gransking av hvordan skogeiere i Trøndelag i perioden 2009-2018 brukte skogfond til opplæring/kompetanseheving.


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Climate change presents the largest global challenge in human history. In order to achieve ambitious climate goals, we need a rapid worldwide decarbonization of all sectors enabled by a socio-technical transformation. Previous research argues that the transition is hindered due to researchers’ disciplinary lock-in that only addresses one piece of the complex phenomenon. This article contributes to this discussion by developing an integrated decision-making model for climate change action. The framework builds on climate change literature from multiple disciplines. It identifies key conditions (stages) influencing people’s decisions about climate action. In order to achieve the transition towards a low-carbon society, a variety of climate policies is needed that address different stages of the decision-making model. These consist of a mix of short-term fix policies such as incentives and carbon pricing, and long-term policies fostering social change by addressing our deeper societal values that redefine social well-being and happiness. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2021.10.003


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The basic objective of this report is to compare Norwegian and global aquaculture and the use of aquafeed reciprocally. We have formulated two main goals: 1) To compile information about the development in use of raw materials in compound feed for aquaculture and land-based animal husbandry respectively, taking updated information as of 2020 on feed for Norwegian aquaculture as point of departure, and 2) To strengthen the knowledge base for future decisions on sourcing and development of feed raw materials for Norwegian aquaculture in the light of international markets for food, availability of commodities as well as climate and environmental demands.


  • Pia Piroschka Otte
  • Ricardo Bernardo
  • Henrik Davidsson
  • Peter Samuelsson
  • Gustaf Bengtsson
  • Viktor Döhlen
  • Joakim Olsson
  • Randi Phinney
  • Lucas Tivana
  • Martin Andersson
  • Marilyn Rayner
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This investigation consisted of developing and evaluating solar dryers together with semi-permeable membrane pouches for drying juicy fruits in low-income tropical countries. Two design iterations were carried out including prototype modelling and testing. The latest developed solar dryers were a passive and an active solar dryer. Modelling was initially carried out mathematically using an equation solver software followed by computational fluid dynamics. Preliminary measurements were carried out on a small-scale solar dryer. Thereafter, full-scale models were developed and tested, both in laboratory and in real conditions in Mozambique. Results from modelling were validated against measurements in laboratory in Sweden and field trials in Mozambique. Prototype building and testing in Mozambique was undertaken in collaboration with local farmers and a university. Measurement results show that the dryers help to prevent microbial growth through increased temperatures. The drying flux was increased by 50% for the passive, and by 100% for the active solar dryers compared to the ambient controls that did not use a solar dryer. The total drying time was below four days for all pouches in the dryers. The active solar dryer was shown to have the shortest drying time and the highest capacity (more pouches) but also the highest costs. Mould growth and juice fermentation were observed on control pouches drying in open air. These problems were solved with the use of solar dryer technology. However, some challenges with the membrane pouches require further development including degradation of the membrane when exposed to direct sunlight. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seja.2021.100006


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This article describes a case study of virtual herding and digital fencing technology implementation for goats in Norway. With the abolishing of physical fences, the goats can roam free in a physical sense, but in the digital realm, they are controlled by a virtual fence. The virtual fence, or digital boundary, is set by the famers and interacts with a collar around the goats’ necks. The collar first give a sound signal and thereafter a small electric shock if the goats cross a boundary, resulting in the creation of new classifications and orderings of reality. This article focuses on what this disruption means for contemporary goat farming in terms of practices, perceptions and policies of (smart) farming, as well as how the goats themselves are given new meanings and ways of being. We analyze this with the theoretical concept of “boundary object” and see how goats, which contain a multiplicity of agency and autonomy, are transformed by smart-farming technologies. Collaboration and interaction are made possible despite the fact that the actors have widely different goals. Through negotiations between multiple actors, a new type of goat emerges between nature-, culture- and technology. We conceptualize this as “CyborGoat.” This boundary object facilitates new everyday agricultural settings, which brings new benefits and issues for different stakeholder actors involved. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2021.08.015


  • Terje Finstad
  • Margrethe Aune
  • Kine Ariela Egseth
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This article investigates the domestication of milking robots, most often labelled automatic milking systems (AMS) into dairy farms in Norway. It shows that producers of AMS tend to represent the integration of the technology as a process where their expert systems aid and guide the farmer so that she learns how to be an ‘AMS farmer’. However, farmers' AMS-stories shows us that learning to live with AMS is a process that continues even after the AMS technology seems to have been fully integrated. Furthermore, cows and fellow farmers are central actors, but machines also learn in the process. Hence, we find a extended domestication process where farmers and cows not only adapt to the machine, but indeed that the machine also need to ‘learn’ how to function in particular farms. As such, we target a domestication triangle of machines, animals and farmers where all elements co-evolve. From this we argue that the concept of domestication in studies of agricultural technology needs to take a posthuman turn and focus on a domestication triangle of humans, animals and machines.


  • Klaus Mittenzwei
  • Sebastian Neuenfeldt
  • Alexander Gocht
  • Thomas Heckelei
  • Pavel Ciaian
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In this paper, we extend the analysis of farm structural change with respect to farm specialisation, size and exit in Norway by, first, explicitly incorporating the location information of farms generating a number of neighbouring farms within a certain range and, second, by predicting farm numbers in addition to farm group shares, which allows for consideration of the exit farm group. We use Norwegian single-farm full census data for the period 1996–2015. Four production specialisations and seven size classes represent farm groups, as well as a residual and an exit farm group at the regional level. The estimates indicate the explanatory power and importance of aggregated farm location information in the model. Simulation analysis showed that the farm groups develop differently, given a change in the number of neighbouring farms with respect to the farm numbers and farm group shares.
Agriculture 2021, 11(7), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11070643


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With a growing number of displaced people, there is a need for robust approaches to coping with displacement. Uganda has a progressive refugee policy that promotes freedom of movement and the socioeconomic rights of the refugees. Specifically, refugees are often allocated land to settle and cultivate rural settlements, and the integrated social service provision facilitates interaction with host communities. However, there remain challenges in creating sustainable livelihoods for refugees in rural settlements. There exist significant tensions over shared resources such as land, water, woodlots, and grazing areas. Based on a survey of 416 households and key informant interviews with South Sudanese refugees in selected settlements in the Adjumani district, the paper highlights refugees’ access to social and economic spaces as critical pathways to sustainable livelihoods and integration. Uganda’s progressive policy expands the opportunity space; however, refugees still encounter significant barriers in accessing the socioeconomic spaces. Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10831; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910831