Writers: Gunn-Turid Kvam og Brit LogsteinRapporten presenterer resultater fra intervju med forbrukere, representanter fra meierisektoren og dagligvarekjedene om holdninger til økt samvær mellom ku og kalv i norsk melkeproduksjon. Flere av aktørene tror at økt samvær kan være bra for dyrevelferden fordi det vil gi dyra mulighet til å utøve en mer naturlig atferd. Samtidig var spesielt forbrukerne klare på at de trenger mer kunnskap for å si noe sikkert om hvilken praksis de foretrekker. Den største meieriaktøren vektla mer forskning for å kunne fastslå om økt samvær kan bidra til bedre dyrevelferd, mens de mindre meieriaktørene mente at økt samvær er bra for dyrevelferden og tror denne praksisen vil øke framover. Dagligvarekjedene er samstemt om at det neppe er noen interesse i markedet i dag for å betale mer for meieriprodukter der ku og kalv har gått sammen, men de tror likevel at den nye praksisen vil øke blant melkeprodusentene. I alle grupper intervjuet, er det enighet om at en eventuell omlegging må ta hensyn til norske melkeprodusenter og deres økonomi.
- Natalia Mamonova
- Susanne Wengle
- Vitalii Dankevych
Writers: Natalia Mamonova, Susanne Wengle & Vitalii DankevychThis article examines the corn-driven boom of Ukraine’s agriculture, the damage wrought by Russia’s war, and the adaptation strategies by Ukrainian corporate agribusinesses. It thereby contributes to debates on the resilience of the global food system: we confirm extant concerns that the neoliberal agricultural model is highly sensitive to external shocks. We show that export-oriented agribusinesses initially sustained significant losses, but learned to adapt to the dramatically changing economies of corn-growing. Finally, despite this remarkable resilience, we argue that military force, wielded by a state explicitly challenging Western hegemony, can significantly disrupt corporate power in the contemporary food regime. The Journal of Peasant Studies, https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2023.2255568
- Marcello Graziano
- Adam Gallaher
- Stephen Axon
- Amanda Bertana
Writers: Adam Gallaher, Marcello Graziano, Stephen Axon & Amanda BertanaThe United States has only recently begun investing in commercial-scale offshore wind energy (OWE). Although the United States is slow to progress, it is uniquely positioned to build on the existing knowledge that coastal European countries have applied for their own energy transitions. In this study, we analyze how federal and regional plans for expanding the OWE sector in the United States brought to the surface decade-long tensions related to multi-scale governance mismatches, jurisdictional conflicts, and unclear pathways for implementing national industrial policies. Drawing upon the European experience with OWE, we employ a dynamic multi-level perspective framework enriched by socio-ecological elements to examine the United States energy transition through its most promising technology. From our framework we identify six categories of OWE developments characterized by both unique and shared elements between the United States and European coastal countries. These elements are: (1) role of local communities, (2) governance structures, (3) multi-scale government interactions, (4) regional socioeconomic structures, (5) socio-ecological impacts, and (6) relationships with existing industries. Drawing upon our analysis, we identify and conceptually map four research areas in need of further development for the United States and the research community— (1) knowledge, (2) potential, (3) adaptation, and (4) learning. These insights provide critical information to ensure that the United States expansion into offshore energy generation is characterized by elements of justice, equity, and inclusive regional economic development.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 187, November 2023, 113766, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2023.113766
- Kristian Borch
- Finn Arler
- Karl Sperling
- Kristian Borch
- Julia Kirch Kirkegaard
- Sophie Nyborg
Forfattere:The aim of this paper is to provide a new perspective on the conditions for the multiple dimensions of concerns and to understand why some wind power projects run smoothly, while others lead to unexpected outcomes due to local resistance. The paper considers three Danish wind farm developments with different planning difficulties, from “smooth” to intensified resistance and conflicts between local communities and the planning authority. To better understand the different planning pathways, we use a research framework where social acceptance is viewed from a conflict management theory perspective, with a focus on the uniqueness and different dimensions of conflicts. The paper discusses how the framing of the planning system considers specific types of tangible concerns, while more intangible concerns are neglected, and how this leads to escalating conflicts. The paper is concluded with several policy recommendations on how to avoid conflicts and how authorities and politicians should reflect on their own agency in provoking conflicts, which can be avoided by proactively involving affected communities at early stages. Energies 2023, 16(12), 4662; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124662
Writers: Maja Farstad, Pia P. Otte & Erika PalmerUnder the umbrella of sustainable development, the bioeconomy presents one vision for overcoming complex sustainability challenges, such as climate change, by replacing non-renewable resources with renewable biological resources. But how will the efforts to implement this transition be received by the general public? Among Norwegians, the acceptance of a bioeconomic transition appears to be relatively high, and this study identifies critical enabling conditions in Norway that may be necessary to foster social acceptance in other countries as well. We employed a theoretical framework of social acceptance to demonstrate the complexity of this social phenomenon as a basis for an open and qualitative methodological approach. The study finds that trust, extinguished hopes of a pure life and intrepidness are enabling conditions that make people more receptive to new developments and future cultural adaption. As these fear averse conditions are not experienced globally, lower social acceptance of a bioeconomic transition can be expected elsewhere. Environment, Development and Sustainability, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-023-03403-w
Writer: Brit LogsteinDette notatet presenterer resultater fra to spørreundersøkelser, henholdsvis blant et representativt utvalg av norske bønder (n= 1 069) og blant en gruppe av norske oppdrettere (n= 32). Begge undersøkelsene ble gjennomført i 2022.
Writer: Richard HelliwellThis report outlines the outcome of a digital symposium held on 29th and 30th June 2022 to discuss and explore the potential for interconnections, synergies and disjuncture between system thinking and assemblage thinking approaches within food system research.
Writer: Eirik Magnus FuglestadGHG mitigation policies for Norwegian agriculture are often about what farmers can do on their farms, and stand in the tradition of ecological modernization in which technological innovations play a key role. The current system of production is not challenged. Based on my experience as a farmer, I argue that a meaningful GHG mitigation policy should rather be based on practices founded in the de-growth perspective.
Writers: Pia Piroschka Otte, Natalia Mæhle, and Rita Moseng SivertsvikThis report is based on the testing of local crowdfunding of climate measures in agriculture to validate research findings from a previous research project (COOLCROWD). We have carried out two crowdfunding campaigns in Norway with farmers, which show very different levels of success. In this report, we evaluate the results of the two crowdfunding campaigns by examining the farmers' experiences and the contributors' motivation to contribute financially to the projects.
- Klaus Mittenzwei
- Jordan Hristov
- Ignacio Perez-Dominguez
- Peter Witzke
Writers: Klaus Mittenzwei, Jordan Hristov, Ignacio Perez-Dominguez og Peter WitzkeWhile countries have agreed in the Paris-agreement on common rules to report GHG emissions, the design of domestic climate policy regimes remains in the national domain. This may cause different carbon prices for climate gasses across countries, between a country's emission sectors, and within the same sector. Our focus is on methane, which is a major emitter from agriculture, but also linked to livestock farming which is a core activity in agriculture worldwide. We analyse the potential effects of domestic carbon pricing regimes for agriculture in a non-cooperative game theoretic setting using a global agricultural sector model. Our results indicate no ‘race to the bottom’ to apply carbon pricing regimes that result in lowest implicit carbon prices for methane. Enforcing a uniform regime can reduce additional global warming with up to 0.02 °C, but runs the risk of agreeing to lower emission cuts than a nationally determined choice would suggest. Q Open, https://doi.org/10.1093/qopen/qoad021
Writers: Juni Rosann E. Johanssen, Gunn-Turid Kvam, Brit Logstein and Mette VaarstIn recent years, the common dairy farming practice of early separation of dam and calf has received increased attention. Our aim was to explore how Norwegian dairy farmers with cow-calf contact (CCC) systems apply these systems in practice, and how they experience and perceive the interrelationships between cows and calves and humans within these systems. We conducted in-depth interviews with 17 farmers from 12 dairy farms and analyzed responses inductively, inspired by the grounded theory approach. The farmers in our study practiced their CCC systems differently from each other and had varying as well as common perceptions about these systems. Calves' intake of colostrum was not seen as a challenge, regardless of practice. The farmers generally perceived that any aggression shown by cows toward humans was merely an exhibition of cows' natural protective instinct. However, when the farmers had good relationships with their cows and the cows felt safe around them, the farmers could handle the calves and build good relationships with them as well. The farmers experienced the calves learning a lot from their dams. Most of the farmers' dairy housing systems were not adapted for CCC, and CCC systems could require modification in terms of placing greater emphasis on observing the animals and making adjustments in the barn and around milking. Some thought having CCC on pasture was the best and most natural, while others were reluctant to have CCC on pasture. The farmers encountered some challenges with stressed animals after later separation, but several had found methods to minimize stress. Generally, they had different opinions about workload, but agreed they spent less time on calf feeding. We found that these farmers were thriving with their CCC systems; they all described positive emotions around seeing cows and their calves together. Animal welfare and natural behavior were important to the farmers.
Journal of Dairy Science, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2022-22999
- Klaus Mittenzwei
- Geir Wæhler Gustavsen
- Kristine Grimsrud
- Henrik Lindhjem
- Hilde Bjørkhaug
Writers: Klaus Mittenzwei, Geir Wæhler Gustavsen, Kristine Grimsrud, Henrik Lindhjem og Hilde BjørkhaugClimate policies may have adverse geographically unequal socio-economic impacts that, if left unaddressed, may hamper their implementation. This paper examines factors explaining rural-urban perceptions of the effects of climate policy on agriculture and rural areas. The paper adds to current knowledge by jointly analysing socio-economic factors and factors describing the distinct role geographical locations play in shaping these perceptions. We conduct a novel statistical analysis utilising a large preference survey of the Norwegian adult population spatially matched at the municipality level with indexes capturing centrality and the relative importance, and, hence, vulnerability of agriculture to effects of climate change. Our analysis does not identify a principal conflict between the goals of climate policy, rural policy, and agricultural policy across geographical locations. Conflicts along the rural-urban gradient arise around the priority given to the three policy areas, and the concrete impact of climate mitigation measures on rural areas. Centrality more than agricultural properties explains the formation of resistance to policies. The policy process should therefore acknowledge rural concerns, and climate mitigation options should be more carefully designed to avoid further rural-urban polarisation.
Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 100, May 2023, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2023.03.009
Writer: Renate Marie Butli HårstadThe lack of research in farm animal welfare governance is noticeable given how political science traditionally describes the agricultural field as politicized, i.e., subject to private and public regulations and governance. This paper shows how this issue is making its way into social and political science by using a scoping review methodology to map and analyze what exists in the research literature on farm animal welfare governance from 2000 to 2021. In evaluating drivers in farm animal governance, the literature points to increasing public concern. This is not necessarily because it changes the public's actions, but rather give legitimacy to actors to drive change in other domains such as research and the market. This review identifies retailers and animal welfare organizations as key actors in private farm animal welfare governance. Public government and political parties are perceived as “slower drivers,” thus leaving room for private governance. Review of Policy Research, https://doi.org/10.1111/ropr.12554
A Circular Economy (CE) is seen as a strategy to achieve sustainable development and is perceived as a substitute for the current take-make-waste linear economy. However, the sustainability potential of the CE can be limited by the occurrence of Rebound Effects (REs). This study fills multiple research gaps by determining REs at micro- and meso levels, identifying mechanisms behind REs (causal relationships between variables from implementing CE initiatives to REs), and including the interaction between different REs in a complex CE context. The results highlight the importance of the interconnectedness of REs and their mechanisms at different levels within a complex CE system and demonstrate the need for interdisciplinary research. Moreover, the findings indicate that a strong collaboration between multiple stakeholders is needed to manage the application of CE principles. This integrated approach should start with awareness raising and dissemination of knowledge about REs and its mechanisms.
- Brit Logstein
- Hilde Bjørkhaug
Writers: Brit Logstein and Hilde BjørkhaugThis article presents research carried out in Norway, among the population of livestock farmers. It analyses farmers' understanding of animal welfare, and how their different concerns about animal welfare varies across farmers' considerations about the role of the agricultural sector in Norwegian society and animal welfare regulations, material conditions at the farm level, farmers' opinion about animal rights activist groups, and in several individual characteristics. The empirical material was derived from a postal survey conducted in 2020 (n = 745); the analyses were conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM) which has its advantage in identifying latent attitudes. Informed by convention theory, the study shows that two conventions of animal welfare were most prominent among Norwegian livestock farmers. One emphasizing animals' basic health and feelings and a second animals'natural needs. These two conventions point to a potential split within the livestock farming population. Support for the convention basic health and feelings coincides with efficiency and effectiveness in Norwegian food production and farmers' contribution to feeding the Norwegian population. Support of the convention natural needs coincides with support for enhancing biodiversity and attractive landscapes as important additional values in Norwegian agriculture. The support for the convention of animals' needs to behave naturally was found to be lower than the basic health and feelings and this might slow down or hinder implementation of practices and future regulations aimed at enhancing the natural needs of farm animals, accommodation to public expectations of good animal welfare, and is potentially challenging the farmers' social license to farm animals.
Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 99, April 2023, Pages 107-120 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2023.03.002
Writer: Alexander Zahl-ThanemThe link between class origin and educational attainment have been extensively studied in numerous countries. Additionally, a growing body of research shows that place is essential for understanding educational inequalities. Rural youth have been identified as a group commonly underrepresented in higher education in several countries. However, evidence on how class origin and youths’ place of residence are intertwined in higher education participation is scarce. Based on population-wide administrative data of the Norwegian 1996-1998 birth cohorts, this chapter analyses the relationship between youths’ class origin and higher education participation along an urban-rural axis. The results confirm previous research showing that social class, gender, and place are all contributing factors affecting youths’ higher education participation. Further, the main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the relationship between class origin and higher education participation is somewhat stable along the urban-rural axis, (ii) gender inequality in higher education participation is more prominent in rural versus urban areas, disfavoring rural boys, and (iii) boys growing up in rural areas have a considerably lower probability of participating in higher education compared to their urban counterparts, even when comparing youth with the same class background. The findings suggest that place should be considered a significant factor that could affect youths’ educational careers – alongside and in combination with other well-known factors, such as class and gender. I Mariann Villa, Erik T. Valestrand og Johan Fredrik Rye (red.) Migrasjon og mobilitet - handlinger, mønstre og forståelser i norsk sammenheng.
Writers: Sarah Harper (University of Victoria and Wildlife Conservation Society) and Danika Kleiber (WorldFish and James Cook University) with contributions from Afrina Choudhury (WorldFish and Wageningen University), Alice Joan Ferrer (University of the Philippines Visayas), Amelia Duffy-Tumasz (Temple University), Ashley Fent (Vassar College), Ayodele Oloko (University of Bremen), Carmen Pedroza (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Charlotte Gough (Blue Ventures and University of Exeter), Chikondi Manyungwa-Pasani (Department of Fisheries, Malawi), Clonesha Romeo (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Rural Transformation, Industry and Labour, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Cynthia McDougall (Stockholm Environment Institute), Diego Salgueiro-Otero (Universidade de Vigo), Elena Ojea (Universidade de Vigo), Gonzalo Macho (Universidade de Vigo and Fisheries Consultant), Holly M. Hapke (University of California – Irvine), Hunter Snyder (Dartmouth College), Jennifer Lee Johnson (Michigan State University), Kafayat Fakoya (Lagos State University), Kirsten Bradford (Simon Fraser University), Kumi Soejima (Setsunan University), Kyoko Kusakabe (Asian Institute of Technology), Laura Robson (Blue Ventures), Luceni Hellebrandt (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande – MARéSS), Madeleine Gustavsson (Ruralis – Institute for Rural and Regional Research, and University of Exeter), Maricela De la Torre Castro (Stockholm University), Molly Atkins (WorldFish and University of Birmingham), Nikita Gopal (ICAR – Central Institute of Fisheries Technology), Philippa J. Cohen (WorldFish and James Cook University), Tahiry Randrianjafimanana (Blue Ventures), Rindra Rasoloniriana (Blue Ventures), Sangeeta Mangubhai (Wildlife Conservation Society and Talanoa Consulting), Santiago de la Puente (University of British Columbia), Sara Fröcklin (Swedish Society for Nature Conservation and Stockholm University), Sarah Appiah (University of Ghana) and Sarah Lawless (James Cook University)FAO, Duke University & WorldFish. 2023. Illuminating Hidden Harvests – The contributions of small-scale fisheries to sustainable development. Rome. https://doi.org/10.4060/cc4576en