Article
Summary

Many countries have included agriculture as one of the sectors where they intend to obtain significant greenhouse gas emission reductions. In Norway, the dairy-beef sector, in particular, has been targeted for considerable emission cuts. Despite publicly expressed interest within the agricultural sector for reducing emissions, significant measures have yet to be implemented. In this paper, we draw on qualitative data from Norway when examining the extent the wider agri-food network around farmers promotes or restrains the transition toward low-emission agricultural production. A qualitative analysis based on interviews with key stakeholders from various parts of the agri-food network of dairy-beef indicates that, if it is up to the dairy-beef system itself, it will develop in the direction of continued increased production volumes and increased efficiency in production, combined with moderate measures to reduce emissions. There is an obvious reluctance to stimulate the consumer demand toward other products or meat products with reduced emissions because such a solution would complicate full exploitation of existing agricultural resources and hence could bring considerable negative economic consequences. Another factor limiting the scope and drive towards a low-carbon production is that the effects of various potential climate measures do not appear as unambiguous. Our study indicates that the dairy-beef sector will likely not reach the goal of reduced emissions from its own initiatives. Rather, significant changes would probably require both push and pull support from forces outside the agricultural system. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-020-10134-5


Doktoravhandling og hovedoppgaver
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The thesis “Farmland preservation – Between values and value: An empirical study of meaning, knowledge, and power in planning and politics” is a collection of five articles and an introduction that binds them together. The articles are based on studies of farmland preservation in four cases: 1) farmland preservation historically in the Land Act; 2) farmland preservation in the Trondheim land-use plan, which comprises the in-depth study of the thesis; 3) the Greenbelt success story in Toronto as a contrasting case; and 4) farmland preservation in the organizational sphere at the national level in Norway. The dissertation is ablend of empirical articles and an account of how we can think more broadly about the processes being studied.


Book
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Exploring the ways in which culture, systems of value, and ethics impact agriculture, this volume addresses contemporary land questions and conditions for agricultural land management. Throughout, the editors and contributors consider a range of issues, including pressure on farmland, international and global trade relations, moral and ethical questions, and implications for governance. The focus of Finance or Food? is land use in Australia, Canada, and Norway, chosen for their commonalities as well as their differences. With reference to these specific national contexts, the contributors explore political, ecological, and ethical debates concerning food production, alternative energy, and sustainability. The volume argues that recognition of food, finance, energy, and climate crises is driving investments and reframing the strategies of development agencies. At the same time, food producers, small farmers, and pastoralists facing eviction from their land are making their presence felt in this debate, not just locally, but in national policy arenas and international fora as well. This volume investigates the many ways in which this process is occurring and draws out the cultural implications of new developments in global land use. An important intervention into a timely debate, Finance or Food? will be essential reading for both academics and policymakers.


Book
Summary

Skal bioøkonomien overta når oljen tar slutt? En slik overgang vil innebære en rekke endringer innen blant annet jordbruk, skogbruk, fiskeri, akvakultur, biovitenskap og industri. En «smart» bioøkonomi vil kreve utvikling på tvers av disse biosektorene. Å få til en overgang som også er samfunnsmessig akseptabel for befolkningen, krever kloke politiske beslutninger, og kunnskapsgrunnlaget må styrkes. Satsing på bioøkonomi reiser en rekke nye spørsmål: Hva vil det innebære i praksis at bioøkonomi får en større rolle? Hvordan styrke omstillingen til en mer biobasert økonomi? Hvilke initiativer og virkemidler må til for å gjennomføre et skifte fra olje- til biobasert økonomi? Hva skal man forstå med begrepet bioøkonomi? Etter oljen. Vår bioøkonomiske fremtid diskuterer forskjellige aspekter, muligheter og utfordringer ved en slik overgang. Boka er aktuell for studenter, aktører i næringslivet, politikere, myndigheter, organisasjoner, forskere og ikke minst den interesserte samfunnsborger. Boka er en del av prosjektet BIOSMART, finansiert av Norges forskningsråd og ledet av Ruralis - Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning.


Report
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This report is a compilation of quantitative data from the Ungdata Survey that highlights differences and similarities between young people in rural areas and young people in the rest of the country, and qualitative data obtained from the Youth District Panel. The report provides insights into how youth in rural areas look at their own local environment, work opportunities, education, and the future.


Note
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Utredningen omfatter drivstofforbruk i primærlandbruket, og rapporten dekker i praksis drivhusnæring, jordbruk og skogbruk. Vi har definert begrepet primærnæring som alt som foregår med utgangspunkt i gårdsbruket og som er nødvendig for å ta vare på primærproduktet som leveres. Når vi bruker begrepet landbruksdiesel referer det til landbrukets andel av såkalt anleggsdiesel som betegner et offentlig avgiftsregime hvor dieselen er fritatt for bl.a. veibruksavgift og innblandingskrav. Utredningen har basert seg på ulikemetoder. Der offentlig statistikk fra SSB tilgjengelig er denne brukt. Vi har også støttet oss på tall fra Budsjettnemnda for jordbruket. Men siden disse tallene er laget med sikte på forhandlinger i jordbruksoppgjøret og ikke alltid anvendbare for vårt formål. Prosjektet har laget egn beregninger etter dialog med de ulike bransjene. Vi har hatt godt samarbeid med NLR og Felleskjøpet Agri, Norske Felleskjøp o.a. om beregningene som er gjort for energi til korntørking. Tine, Nortura, Norsk Skogeierforbund og Maskinentreprenørens Forening har bidratt med viktige nøkkeltall i sine sektorer. Norsk Gartnerforbund har vært helt avgjørende som bidragsyter til beskrivelsen av veksthusnæringa. Hovedkonklusjonene i prosjektet er at det er mulig å erstatte dagens forbruk av fossil landbruksdiesel i jordbruk og skogbruk med fornybar EN15940-diesel. På kort sikt er det mulig å fase ut ca. 166 mill. liter fossil diesel og redusere klimagassutslipp med ca. 365 tusen tonn CO2. På lenger sikt er det mulig å fase ut hele dagens utslipp fra landbruksdiesel som utgjør vel 443 tusen tonn CO2. Staten legger i dag avgift på landbruksdieselen. I et mulig utfasingsforløp med jevn utfasing over 10 år vil reduksjonen på 1825 tusen tonn CO2 koste samlet kr 4 milliarder kr, hvor bonden med dagens avgifter betaler ca. 2,9 milliarder kr og Staten betaler 1,1 milliarder kr. Totalt blir det er pris på ca. kr 2100 pr tonn CO2. For Staten blir prisen i dette utfasingseksemplet ca. kr 603 pr tonn CO2 kuttet. Dersom det langsiktige prisgapet mellom den gamle og nye dieselen blir tre kroner, vil prisen pr tonn CO2 kuttet bli ca. kr 1286 etter utfasingsperioden. Dersom prisgapet blir to kroner vil prisen pr tonn CO2 kuttet bli ca. kr 857. Kostnadsberegningene viser at det er viktig å utvikle markedet for fornybar biodiesel av toppkvaliteten EN15940. Utviklingen av markedet må omfatte volum, kapasitet og skalafordeler, konkurranse mellom flere tilbydere, og ikke minst overgang til skogsavfall og biorester fra andre produksjoner i bioøkonomien som råstoff for bioråoljen som skal bli til EN15940.


Note
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Klimaendringer, befolkningsvekst og behovet for økt matproduksjon skaper utfordringer for landbruket. En del av løsningen for landbruket er å forbedre praksis ved hjelp av miljøvennlig innovasjon. Teknologiutviklingen i landbruket skjer fort og har økende oppmerksomhet på presisjonsdyrking, digitalisering og automatisering for et mer bærekraftig landbruk. Det er et behov for å forstå hvordan utviklingen skjer, hvor langt vi er kommet, og hvordan vi skal møte teknologiutviklingen og legge til rette for den. Dette notatet beskriver innovasjonsprosesser og begreper knyttet til modenhetsmåling. Det har blitt gjennomført en kartlegging av 36 ulike teknologier og forskningsprogram rettet mot et bærekraftig norsk landbruk. Vi har utviklet et verktøy for å vurdere ny teknologi innenfor aspektene teknologisk, markedsmessig og samfunnsmessig modenhet. Gjennomgangen av teknologiene og litteratur på modenhetsvurdering av ny teknologi har resultert i modenhetstabeller og tilhørende spørsmålsbatteri som beskriver ni trinn med økende grad av modenhet.


Report
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Denne rapporten tar utgangspunkt i en spørreundersøkelse gjennomført blant bønder under 31 år med totalt 186 besvarelser. I tillegg er det gjennomført seks intervju av rådgivere i Tine og Nortura og syv intervju av unge bønder som har vært involvert i Bondelagets mentorordning. Rapporten analyserer hvilke forhold som spiller inn på bønders mentale helse og uhelse, samt hvordan utvalgte tiltak og aktører arbeider mot bedre mental helse blant unge bønder. Datainnsamlingen ble gjennomført i perioden 2018 til 2019 og var en del av prosjektet Mental helse blant unge bønder. Spørreundersøkelsen viser at en rekke forhold som tilfredshet med arbeidsforhold og arbeidsmiljø, og graden av faglig påfyll er viktig for unge bønders mentale helse. Funnene fra spørreundersøkelsen støttes av intervjuene med unge bønder i mentorordningen. Intervju med rådgivere i Tine og Nortura viser at rådgiverne arbeider aktivt med mental helse, men at dette arbeidet begrenses av tid og praksis og kunne derfor hatt et tydeligere fokus.


Article
Summary

This paper investigates transition pathways using an example from the bioeconomy: salmon farming and feed development in Norway. With a Multi-Level Perspective (MLP), the analysis shows how a crucial biological input factor, feed, was gradually developed and innovated through interactions among technologies, institutions, and landscape (external) pressures, with the industry’s ambitions of becoming more sustainable. The case story presents the start of salmon farming as an example of an incremental transformation pathway with gradual reorientations in the 1960s’, where the shift from wet feed to dry, extruded feed was a crucial technological enabler. At the start of the 1990s, strong exogenous changes, including an economic crisis of overproduction and declines in salmon prices, led to extensive institutional changes. Shifts in ownership and the introduction of feed quotas brought a substitution pathway, whereby salmon farming became a national economic project. As production recovered, however, overfishing for feed became a concern. From the late 1990s on, the sociotechnical regime followed a reconfiguration pathway with the innovation of among others plant-based feed input. Over time, using vegetarian salmon feed has had unintended consequences, particularly environmental and social problems related to soy production. While neither technologies nor transitions in themselves are sustainable, this case exhibits a shift in transition pathways and how the salmon farming industry was able to respond to different sustainability concerns over time. Yet, as the transition to soy-based salmon feed demonstrates, this development entails only a weak sustainability with a main focus on economic sustainability, which also could be the case as new innovative feed substitutions continue to evolve. This finding is line with the critique of the bioeconomy agenda for paying insufficient attention to environmental sustainability and for failing to challenge predominant structures in society.


Article
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We model the Western Roman Empire from 500 BCE to 500 CE, aiming to understand the interdependent dynamics of army size, conquered territory and the production and debasement of coins within the empire. The relationships are represented through feed-back relationships and modelled mathematically via a dynamical system, specified as a set of ordinary differential equations. We analyze the stability of a subsystem and determine that it is neutrally stable. Based on this, we find that to prevent decline, the optimal policy was to stop debasement and reduce the army size and territory during the rule of Marcus Aurelius. Given the nature of the stability of the system and the kind of policies necessary to prevent decline, we argue that a high degree of centralized control was necessary, in line with basic tenets of structural-demographic theory.


  • Freya Rixen-Cunow
Report
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The call for sustainable development marks a major thread in almost all institutions, organizations, governments and the international community alike. In Norway, this led to the so called green shift. It includes, among other things, the development of renewable energy projects, in particular wind energy. Those projects, however, are in conflict with the reindeer pastoralism of the Sámi people, as it diminishes the exercise of their traditional way of life. As a consequence, local and indigenous communities resist the new and positively intended changes which threaten them in the name of the greater good. This raises questions of how just the green shift is, considering especially the underlying historical, cultural, sociopolitical and economic structures. Based on the concepts of environmental justice and just sustainabilities, the aim of this thesis is twofold: firstly, to elucidate the links between sustainable development, social justice and indigenous environmental activism, and secondly, to examine activists’ perspectives and experiences of sustainability and justice in regard to the Norwegian green shift. For this purpose, data were collected through both in-depth interviews mainly with people engaged in environmental issues and identifying as Sámi, and the participation and observation of several meetings. It has been shown that the informants generally evaluated the process of the green shift as contrasting with their values, knowledge, awareness, perceptions of justice and equity, identity and indigenous rights. The concept of sustainable development has been found to have lost its credibility for the activists. It fails to include not only justice at several dimensions, but also lacks different perspectives and (post) colonial and ethical considerations. Furthermore, instead of benefitting all four theoretical pillars society, culture, economy and environment alike, economy was identified as major beneficiary of the green shift. Thus, the Norwegian sustainable development is not to the same degree sustainable and just for everyone. Indigenous environmental activism is herein acting as a disturbing factor – in a positive way. This is, as it points out the weaknesses of the current discourse. This thesis outlines that what is called sustainable development and green energy by the global community, is phrased quite differently by affected indigenous communities and environmental activists.


Article
Summary

The importance of social capital for agricultural and rural development is explored in this paper through the analysis of seven comprehensive case studies that have been carried out in the framework of the European RETHINK research programme. The case studies are based on rather different initiatives at the interface between agricultural and rural development in Germany, Spain, Italy, Lithuania, Latvia, Denmark and Israel. The case studies represent a broad spectrum of socio‐economic and agricultural contexts and focus on the role of social capital for development. We explore how social capital materialises in the context of rural areas, and what nuances it acquires in different rural environments. The case studies are used to better understand, and to illustrate, different expressions of social capital in different situations. Within the broad notion of social capital, we pay particular attention to trust, cooperation, sense of community, and culture and tradition. All four dimensions play a critical role in agricultural and rural development as they affect how people relate to each other, organise themselves and interact for development. Sociologia Ruralis. DOI: 10.1111/soru.12218


Article
Summary

In Norway, immigration and tourism have recently become important drivers of diversity in rural communities. While rural migration mostly has been studied from the migrants’ perspective, this paper examines how long‐term residents in a Norwegian rural mountain resort characterised by seasonal tourism and labour immigration experience the flux of diverse migrants and how this affects them and the local community. The paper is based on 12 interviews with men and women who are long‐term community residents. A major narrative of the locals is that of the village and its inhabitants as accustomed to mobility, a local knowledge acquired through decades of tourism and in‐migration. But there are also narratives of ambivalence and contradictions and of the place as saturated by mobilities. The paper explores how locals adjust to and avoid these mobilities. Sociologia Ruralis. 10.1111/soru.12263


Article
Summary

The rise of organic chemistry in the 1800s quickly lead to the realisation that products previously derived from plants and animals could be derived synthetically from alternative organic sources. Although it slowly became clear that there were limitations to this technology, the goal of producing animal protein synthetically has remained a tantalising prospect for scientists, with new hopes being rekindled throughout the years as new knowledge emerged or technologies developed. The demonstration of synthetic meat (also termed in vitro meat) in 2013 revived this dream and, with the refinement of protein synthesis technologies, 31 start-ups are now working to become the first company to market synthetic animal protein. The potentially transformative nature of this technology make it essential to understand its potential to disrupt conventional agriculture at an early stage. This paper addresses this issue by examining historical substitutions that have lead to the decline or even decimation of agricultural industries, namely: alizarin (madder), indigotin (indigo) and vanillin (vanilla). Following an outlining of the historical cases themselves, it identifies substitution product complexity, ease of synthesis, compatibility with industrial processes, and contamination of the natural product as four key issues that affect the substitution transition. Analysis of the specific synthetic animal protein case suggests that, while there are many additional issues that could affect any transition, three aspects are key: development of transferrable technologies in the medical sector, potential environmental advantages, and a lack of consumer resistance to its “unnatural” nature. Finally, the paper argues that rather than a complete substitution (e.g. alizarin & indigo) a furcated market (e.g. vanillin) with various classes of protein production is likely to emerge – within which industrial livestock production will struggle to compete against cheap synthetic alternatives. Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 68, Pages 33-45


Article
Summary

Purpose: Demonstration farming has been an important part of agricultural extension since the first decades of the twentieth century. While Seaman Knapp is often credited with developing demonstration farming, his son acknowledged that the concept has much earlier origins in the nineteenth century development of model/pattern farms. However, little is known of these early origins or why early demonstration agriculture failed. This paper addresses this gap. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology involves analysis of out of copy-right historical journal articles, letters, pamphlets, and books recently made available by online services such as Google Books. Findings: The study details how the concept of demonstration farming was developed by agricultural societies of the eighteenth century but was not implemented until the early nineteenth century with the advent of model/pattern farms. Demonstration activities were run by a variety of different types of private and public farm organisations who sought to improve agriculture through emulation. Enthusiasm for model farms died out by the end of the nineteenth century but the failure of model farm demonstration leaves us with lessons for demonstration farming today. Theoretical implications: The study provides new knowledge on the conceptual and historical development of demonstration farming and why it failed to influence change. Practical implications: The study identifies factors that might contribute to the failure of demonstration activities. Originality/value: This is the first study to explore in detail demonstration farming on nineteenth century model farms and, methodologically, outlines how free on-line digitised literature can be used to investigate early agricultural education activities. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, https://doi.org/10.1080/1389224X.2019.1674168


Article
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This article discusses the economic dimensions of agroecological farming systems in Europe. It firstly theoretically elaborates the reasons why, and under what conditions, agroecological farming systems have the potential to produce higher incomes than farms that follow the conventional logic. This theoretical exposition is then followed by a presentation of empirical material from a wide range of European countries that shows the extent to which this potential is being realized. The empirical data draw upon different styles of farming that can be described as ‘proto-agroecological’: approaches to farming that are agroecological by nature, but which may not necessarily explicitly define themselves as agroecological. The empirical material that we present shows the huge potential and radical opportunities that Europe's, often silent, ‘agroecological turn’ offers to farmers that could (and should) be the basis for the future transformation of European agricultural policies, since agroecology not only allows for more sustainable production of healthier food but also considerably improves farmers' incomes. It equally carries the promise of re-enlarging productive agricultural (and related) employment and increasing the total income generated by the agricultural sector, at both regional and national levels. While we recognise that agroecology is a worldwide and multidimensional phenomenon we have chosen to limit this analysis to Europe and the economic dimension. This choice is made in order to refute current discourses that represent agroecology as unproductive and unprofitable and an option that would require massive subsidies. Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 71, Pages 46-61