Report
Summary PDF

Jordstykker som ligger spredt (fragmentert) fører til mye transport for bøndene, samt økte kostnader og klimagassutslipp. Denne studien viser at om lag fire av ti bønder i Norge opplever spredt arealgrunnlag som et problem. Dess lengre avstander til arealene og dess flere brukere en leier areal av, dess større oppleves problemet. Regionalt oppleves problemet som mest markant blant bøndene i Nord-Norge. Det er også her interessen for å delta i lokale prosjekt er størst. Men også et betydelig antall bønder i Trøndelag, Vestlandet og andre bygder på Østlandet, Agder og Rogaland opplever arealoppstykking som et problem. Omtrent samme antall bønder kan tenke seg å delta i et lokalt prosjekt for å redusere arealspredningen. Også her er interessen størst blant de med mange leiekontrakter og store avstander.


Report
Summary PDF

Denne studien undersøker hvilke push- og pull-faktorer som påvirker andelen ikke-vestlige innvandrere i rurale norske kommuner. Push- og pull-faktorer er trekk ved et bosted som gir til-/fraflytting. Kvantitative data analyseres ved hjelp av fixed effect og OLS-analyse. Studien viser at høyere innbyggertall gir høyere andel ikke-vestlige innvandrere. Denne effekten forsvinner derimot når det kontrolleres for andre trekk ved kommunene, slik at innbyggertall ikke fremstår som en pull-faktor i seg selv. Større andel bosatte i tettsteder gir økt andel ikke-vestlige innvandrere. Funnet gjenspeiler den generelle trenden i Norge, hvor befolkningen konsentrerer seg i regionale sentrum på bekostning av spredtbygde områder. Videre viser resultatene at høyere andel ikke-vestlige innvandrere henger sammen med høyere arbeidsledighet; høyere utdanningsnivå; høyere ressursbruk på barnehage- og grunnskolesektoren; samt kommuner med ordfører fra V og SV. Videre viser resultatene at kommuner som ligger i klimasonen innland Troms/Finnmark har færre ikke-vestlige innvandrere, sammenlignet med innland Sør-Norge. Resultatene indikerer også betydelige forskjeller på push- og pull-faktorene mellom rurale og ikke-rurale kommuner.


Report
Summary PDF

This report is based on a case study related to work package five on the PLAID project, a European Union funded project under Horizon 2020. The project deals with demonstration activities in European agriculture. In the Norwegian context, this primarily involve field days, field walks and experimental fields. Events are commonly organised by the Norwegian Agricultural Extension Service (NLR) in cooperation with host farmers, but often also involve county officials, experts and other agricultural organizations as partners. Demonstrations provide a meeting place for farmers with different knowledge and experience, as well as advisors and experts with research-based knowledge and knowledge of local conditions. By sharing experiences, participants are able to develop a better understanding of both the theory and practice behind the activity and thus improve outcomes. Findings from two Norwegian studies in combination with those from other parts of Europe will help improve the organisation and effectiveness of demonstration activities in Norway. This case report will describe a theme day about berry production, how Norwegian berry farmers are encouraged to increase the production of berries in tunnels, extend the berry season and optimize the use of fertilizer and pesticides.


Report
Summary PDF

This report is based on a case study related to work package five on the PLAID project, a European Union funded project under Horizon 2020. The project deals with demonstration activities in European agriculture. In the Norwegian context, this primarily involve field days, field walks and experimental fields. Events are commonly organised by the Norwegian Agricultural Extension Service (NLR) in cooperation with host farmers, but often also involve county officials, experts and other agricultural organizations as partners. Demonstrations provide a meeting place for farmers with different knowledge and experience, as well as advisors and experts with research-based knowledge and knowledge of local conditions. By sharing experiences, participants are able to develop a better understanding of both the theory and practice behind the activity and thus improve outcomes. Findings from two Norwegian studies in combination with those from other parts of Europe will help improve the organisation and effectiveness of demonstration activities in Norway. This case report will describe a demonstration day addressing issues regarding ecological sustainability, how to maintain fertility of the ground and protect the soil from rain and erosion. In addition, the demonstration includes the principles of ecology and climate-related issues.


Note
Summary PDFOrder

24.-25. september 2018 arrangerte Kommunal- og moderniseringsdepartementet Verksted for regional utvikling. Som et av flere bakgrunnsnotat, reflekterer dette notatet over følgende utfordring gitt av KMD: "Befolkningen eldes, særlig i mindre sentrale strøk. Fallende innvandring og lave fødselstall bidrar også til at arbeidskraft blir en stadig større mangelvare i mange lokalsamfunn. Samtidig gir ressurser og lokale kvaliteter mulighet for verdiskaping og vekst. Dette gir nye behov og utfordringer i distrikts-Norge, for eksempel knyttet til lokal næringsutvikling, boligmasse, transportalternativer, nye løsninger på offentlige tjenester, lokal skaperkraft, smarte lokalsamfunn m.m. Endringspress og komplekse problemstillinger stiller imidlertid krav til utviklingskompetanse i kommunene, samtidig vil kapasitet og kompetanse være en økende utfordring for mindre kommuner, med små administrasjoner og begrensede økonomiske ressurser til offensive utviklingstiltak, nye løsninger, samarbeid utover egen organisasjon eller nye arbeidsformer. Dette berører både privat sektor, sivilsamfunnet og offentlig sektor. Hvilket ansvar bør henholdsvis stat og fylkeskommune ta for de mindre sentrale kommunene? Hvilke temaer og sektorer er særlig avgjørende å støtte opp om?"


Report
Summary PDFOrder

Rapporten er en del av prosjektet «Nye strategier for avl, fôring, hygiene, helse og driftsledelse i automatiske melkesystemer (AMS)». Rapporten har som formål å belyse endringene i norsk landbruk som er knyttet til den kraftige økningen i andelen bruk med melkerobot de siste 20 årene, med særlig blikk på bondens ståsted. Rapporten baserer seg på analyser av en landsdekkende spørreundersøkelse blant et representativt utvalg melkeprodusenter, som ble gjennomført av Ruralis – Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning i årsskiftet 2017/2018. Noen hovedtema er melkerobotens effekt på arbeidshverdag, HMS, livskvalitet, familieliv, arbeidsdeling, psykisk og fysisk helse. Denne omveltningen i norsk landbruk handler ikke bare om en endring til en mer effektiv driftsmåte, men er også en endring for gården i sin helhet, og for de menneskene som bor og/eller jobber på gården.


Article
Summary

In December 2013, local politicians celebrated with a champagne toast as the municipality of Trondheim received permission from the Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation to develop 110 ha (272 acres) of high quality farmland for housing and business. The primary reason for this decision was the promotion of a more climate-friendly city. The land in question had been singled out as especially important for agriculture in previous planning processes. Based on documents, media texts and interviews, this article utilises situational analysis to scrutinise this puzzling political decision. It emphasises the importance of discourse in local decision making regarding scarce resources. Local interests and global issues are connected and made sense of in what Foucault (1972) called a “system of meaning”, which allows powerful economic interests and climate change mitigation measures to justify the permanent loss of farmland. As food production is invisible on the local political agenda, the re-implantation of multifunctional urban agriculture in the local food system could be a viable approach to slow further conversion of high quality farmland on the urban fringe. Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 64, November 2018, Pages 20-27


Report
Summary PDFOrder

Rådgivning i landbruket – en casestudie, er en rapport som oppsummerer arbeidspakke 2 i forskningsprosjektet Kompetent bonde som har blitt ledet av Ruralis og pågått i perioden 2015 – 2018. Målet med casestudien var todelt: 1) å studere sentrale faktorer for innovasjon og endring av praksis blant bønder og 2) å studere hvilke modeller og metoder som kan bli identifisert i rådgivninga og hvordan disse fungerer. For å svare på forskningsspørsmålene har vi gjennomført casestudier av rådgivningstilbud hos fire av våre samarbeidspartnere i prosjektet: Felleskjøpet, Tine, Norsk Landbruksrådgiving og Nortura. Rapporten oppsummerer resultater fra casestudiene og gir avslutningsvis forslag til tiltak for å styrke kompetanseutvikling i landbruket.


Report
Summary PDFOrder

Trender i norsk landbruk er en postal spørreundersøkelse blant norske gårdbrukere som gjennomføres av Ruralis – Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning. Undersøkelsen er blitt gjennomført hvert andre år siden 2002, som dermed gjør at årets undersøkelse er den niende i rekken. Målet er å få etablert en kvantitativ tidsserie som gir informasjon om utviklingen innen landbruket over tid. I tillegg til strukturelle sider ved landbruket, dekker spørreundersøkelsen også sosiokulturelle tema som ikke kommer frem i den registerbaserte statistikken. Rapporten består av fire hoveddeler: 1) Undersøkelsens formål og profil, 2) gjennomføring av undersøkelsen og metode, 3) resultater og hovedtrender fra undersøkelsen, og 4) ukommenterte frekvenstabeller med oversikt over hvordan deltakerne i undersøkelsen fordeler seg på de ulike svarkategoriene for hvert spørsmål.


Article
Summary

High concentrations of immigrants in segregated city areas represent a major challenge to integration in Europe and Norway. Segregation and radicalization is typically considered as possible consequences of such a development. In addition, a better geographical diversification of immigrants would also lead to a more favorable development in rural areas. With this as backdrop, the paper examines push and pull factors within rural municipalities for non-western immigrants. The study used register data from SSB and IMDi, which were used to build a panel data set with observations from 2004 to 2015. The unbalanced data set was analyzed using a fixed effects model that included net immigration, labour market, political governance, financial situation and the number of immigrants granted residence. The results show that a larger share of the population in densely populated areas is related to a higher percentage of non-western immigrants, while a higher population relates to a lower share of non-western immigrants. We found a negative relationship between the municipalities’ financial situation and the concentration of non-western immigrants, but there seems to be no connection between non-western immigrants and higher spending on primary school and culture. Municipalities with a mayor from Senterpartiet experienced a decreased percentage of non-western immigrants, compared to municipalities with mayors from Arbeiderpartiet. At the same time, we saw no significant relationship between the share of non-western immigrants and mayors from the other parties compared to mayors from Arbeiderpartiet. https://www.idunn.no/nst/2018/02-03/goey_paa_landet_betydningen_av_lokale_trekk_for_innvandreres


Report
Summary PDFOrder

Rapporten viser resultater fra BIOSMART sin spørreskjemaundersøkelse til virksomheter med tilknytning til bioøkonomien. Undersøkelsen kartla virksomhetenes produksjon og bruk av eller annen tilknytning til biologiske ressurser, planer for innovasjon og oppfatninger om rolle i fremtidens bioøkonomi. Analyser av undersøkelsens svar danner grunnlag for utvikling av sektorvise scenarier for bioøkonomien. I rapporten inngår også en presentasjon av BIOSMART-prosjektets perspektiv på endring.


Article
Summary

Agriculture is a hazardous industry, with a high frequency of injuries. As agriculture is an industry mostly consisting of small enterprises, it may be difficult to prevent injuries. In Norway, an OHS course is available for farmers. This study aims to evaluate this course. The evaluation is a prospective exploratory case study evaluation using qualitative interviews. The results suggest that there was not an increase in use and understanding of OHS systems, despite being the aim of the course. The farmers easily absorbed the practical part of the course, getting solutions and ideas for practical risk prevention at own farm. However, using systems adjusted to farm characteristics required external, face-to-face practical involvement at the farm. The study revealed that the course design was not optimal for farmers, as it addressed the farmers as managers, requiring an understanding of theory, while farmers mainly understand their occupation as practical. The course design should be reconsidered to integrate farmers’ daily practices. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.05.020


Report
Summary PDFOrder

Denne rapporten undersøker politisk organisering før og etter sammenslåing, samt ordninger for nærdemokrati og innbyggermedvirkning før og etter sammenslåing i de sju sammenslåtte kommunene: Harstad (tidligere Harstad og Bjarkøy), Bodø (tidligere Bodø og Skjærstad), Inderøy (tidligere Inderøy og Mosvik), Kristiansund (tidligere Kristiansund og Frei), Re (tidligere Ramnes og Våle) og Vindafjord (tidligere Ølen og Vindafjord). På denne bakgrunnen diskuterer og foreslår vi noen anbefalinger i forbindelse med politisk organisering og ordninger for nærdemokrati i sammenslåingsprosesser.


Article
Summary

This paper, based on data from two recent national surveys of the residents of municipalities in Norway, compares rural and urban elderly people’s degree of satisfaction with locally available services and their reported involvement with others in the community. It focuses in particular on their living conditions and indicators of well-being, including their access to home care and medical services and their degree of participation and trust in local social networks. Two findings stand out. First, contrary to common expectations, rural residents are at least as satisfied with their home care and medical services as their urban counterparts are. This parity reflects Norway's policy of subsidizing social welfare services in sparsely populated areas. Second, in keeping with common expectations, they report more frequent social contacts with their neighbours and greater participation in voluntary work than urban residents do. European Countryside · Vol. 10 · 2018 · No. 2 · p. 232-246


Note
Summary PDFOrder

As part of the project COOLCROWD, this report provides an overview of preliminary findings and results from WP 2.2 about socio-cultural conditions for crowdfunding in Norway. The primary objective of the project is “to explore the potential of crowdfunding for climate-friendly agricultural projects in Norway as a novel, socio-technical practice that promotes a rapid transition to a low-emission society.” Together with partners from the transport sector, COOLCROWD intends to make it possible for people to fund mitigation measures at local farms and, in this way, provide benefits to local communities as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. During the project period of three years, the project aims to study the level of interest amongst the Norwegian public and the interest of farmers in partaking in crowdfunding. An important purpose of the project is to develop possible business models for local climate crowdfunding in Norway, including the legal framework. This report attempts to map some of the socio-cultural opportunities and barriers that form the background of getting crowdfunding to work in Norway.


Article
Summary

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to explore how advisors’ relational and professional competence influences inter-subjectivity and farmers’ perceptions of farm visits in a setting where advisors have formal power. Methodology: Advisors from the dairy company Tine, which is owned by farmers in collaboration, visit farmers at least once a year. The aim of the visit is to assist farmers in managing the farm and to control the production conditions in the cowshed. In a case study, we attended 10 such mandatory advisor visits and interviewed both farmers and advisors. Findings: Together with advisor style, our findings show that the power relation leaves room for advisors to define their roles widely, ranging from inspector to coach. Advisors have different perceptions of what their jobs are and when they have done a good job. These differences determine the degree of inter-subjectivity and how satisfied farmers are with visits. Furthermore, advisors’ relational and professional competencies are crucial for achieving high inter-subjectivity and satisfied farmers. Theoretical implications: This paper contributes to the theory by identifying factors that influence farmers’ perceptions of advisor visits, as well as by showing the importance of the advisor’s relational and professional competence in a setting where they have formal power. Practical implications: Partly as an outcome of this study, Tine has started a process to separate the control function from farm visits. Tine has also decided to let farmers choose advisors themselves. Originality/value: The power relation in our study differs from most consultant–client interactions in the literature. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, DOI: 10.1080/1389224X.2018.1479280


Article
Summary

Many agricultural technology interventions that aim to improve farmers’ livelihoods focus on households as the unit of analysis and ignore gender roles that entail different benefits and costs for different household members. Agricultural projects have shown limited success where gender roles and relations were ignored and thus more gender sensitive research is needed in agricultural technology development to ensure social acceptance. In this study, we address this need by investigating the importance of gender roles and relations in the case of solar fruit drying in Mozambique. We apply a variety of gender sensitive participatory methods that enable farmers to actively take part in the technology development process. First results indicate that the costs and benefits of solar fruit drying are not shared equally between genders. Women have much less time available for using the solar fruit dryer. The data also indicate that certain steps in the solar fruit drying process are clearly gender divided. We finally discuss potential mechanisms that can be applied in agricultural technology projects that can create awareness of the risk to reproduce traditional gender roles and unequal relations in the development process of new agricultural technologies. Gender Technology and Development, 22(1), 40-58, DOI: 10.1080/09718524.2018.1444442