Artikkel
Sammendrag

This article reviews research on the relationship between property rights and nationalism. A property rights perspective to the study of nationalism is relevant to understanding the origins and development of nationalism and nation states. Yet, key theorists of nationalism have mostly ignored the relationship between property rights and nationalism, or looked at it only indirectly. There are a variety of ways in which ownership or possession more generally can be related to nationalism, for instance through colonialism, racism, and dispossession (Bannerji et al. 2001; Bhandar 2016; Bhandar & Toscano 2015). This review, however, in order to build a consistent perspective on the historical emergence of nation states and nationalism, will have its main focus on property rights, property regimes and state-building. The literature on state-building and democratization bears important insights about this relationship which can be applied to the study of nationalism. This review will therefore draw on such literature, in addition to works on nationalism where the topic of property has been mentioned, to show how an integrated property rights perspective to the study of nationalism may yield important insights to our understanding of nations and nationalism. Nationalism and Private Property – The State of Nationalism


Artikkel
Sammendrag

Silage bailer technology preserving harvested grass and turning it into silage by a baling machine attached to a tractor is common in most rural regions in Norway. In this paper, we argue that not only have silage bales become a common sight in rural areas, in certain cases, silage bales have also had profound significance for agricultural development without much attention paid to their profound role and implications. Norway represents such a case, and a deeper understanding of how such a now common agriculture technology became established could shed light on how the introduction of new technologies affects agricultural change on societal and structural levels. This includes how technologies interact with societal and organizational aspects of agriculture – the co-production of technology and societal practices on different levels. How does new technologies connect – influence and become influenced by – socio-cultural farm practices and societal, organizational and structural features of Norwegian agriculture? We use the introduction of the silag round bale press in Norway as a case study to shed light on this implementation process and its significance for the Norwegian agricultural sector. Journal of rural studies, Volume 84, May 2021, Pages 174-179


Notat
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Klimagassutslippene i norsk jordbruk skal ned, men det er uklart hvordan dette best kan gjøres uten at det går utover andre jordbrukspolitiske målsettinger slik som jordbruk over hele landet. Denne analysen ser på muligheter til å opprettholde en stabil matproduksjon og arealbruk gitt at utslipp av klimagasser skal ned og gitt at kjøttforbruket skal reduseres i tråd med myndighetenes kostråd. Ved hjelp av sektormodellen Jordmod vurderes ulike måter å utforme økonomiske virkemidler i jordbruket på, som kan forene disse målene og forutsetningene. Analysen viser at økt bruk av arealtilskudd kan være en viktig nøkkel siden det gir et insentiv til å holde areal i drift selv med færre beitedyr.


Artikkel
Sammendrag

I fremtiden vil Norges økonomi måtte bli mindre avhengig av petroleum både fordi det er en ikke-fornybar ressurs, og på grunn av at vi må slutte å bidra til klimaendringer. Norske myndigheter har derfor begynt å søke aktivt etter et grønnere grunnlag for vår økonomiske fremtid, og bioøkonomien og fornybar energi ansees å være attraktive alternativ. Denne artikkelen ser på hvordan forvaltningen av sentrale naturressurser påvirker mulighetene til å finansiere den fremtidige norske velferdsstaten. For å gjøre dette sammenligner vi forvaltningsregimet som brukes for olje med dem som brukes på vind- og vannkraft, havbruk og bioprospektering. De ulike regimene spiller en avgjørende rolle for størrelsen på og skattleggingen av grunnrenten som ressursene frembringer. Resultatet av vår kartlegging viser at det har vært et brudd i forvaltningstradisjonen for naturressurser. Myndigheten har valgt bort de suksessfulle forvaltningsregimene fra vannkraft og petroleum, og erstattet dem med regimer som verken kan sikre tilsvarende offentlig kontroll eller grunnrentebeskatning av vindkraft, havbruk og bioprospektering. Vi konkluderer med at dagens forvaltningsregime overfor disse sektorene ikke kan bidra til en offentlig rikdom som kan måle seg med den vi har blitt vant til fra oljen. Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift 1-2021 (Vol. 37)


Rapport
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Rapporten retter seg mot personer, organisasjoner eller bedrifter, som kan kommersialisere og implementere forskningsfunnene. Målgruppen er bred og omfatter blant annet landbruksorganisasjoner, banker, folkefinansieringplattformer, og reiseselskap. Rapporten inneholder en oppsummering av utvikling og design av konseptet COOLCROWD for implementeringen i det norske samfunnet.  


Rapport
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Uganda is among the top three refugee hosting countries in the world and the leading one in Africa, accommodating an estimated 1.4 million refugees. This report provides an empirical assessment of how the Corona Pandemic has affected food security and nutrition for refugees and host community members in the Adjumani District in Northern Uganda. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for more funding to the World Food Programme in Adjumani, and the necessity of building more resilient refugee food systems in preparation for future crises.


  • Rob Burton
  • Anda Adamsone-Fiskovica
  • Mikelis Grivins
  • Boelie Elzen
  • Sharon Flanigan
  • Rebekka Frick
  • Claire Hardy
Artikkel
Sammendrag

Purpose: The paper identifies, outlines, and categorises establishment and operational factors that contribute to successful agricultural on-farm demonstration. Design/Methodology/approach: The paper is based on a literature review on demonstration activities and meta-analysis of 24 original case study reports from 12 European countries. Findings: Based on a combination of deductive and inductive analysis, the success determinants are classified into nine critical success factors deemed important in designing an on-farm demonstration event (the ‘Nine Ps'): Purpose, Problem, Place, Personnel, Positioning, Programme, Process, Practicalities, Post-event engagement. Each factor (‘what') is framed in terms of success principles to provide a guide to its enactment (‘how'). Practical implications: The results of the analysis can serve as a practical decision-support tool for organisers and evaluators of on-farm demonstration events. Theoretical implications: The paper broadens the perspective on the character, interlinkages, and relative importance of the factors underlying demonstration and their successful application within the agricultural knowledge and innovation system. Originality/Value: The paper addresses the deficit of comprehensive empirical studies investigating on-farm demonstrations by offering a rich research-based analysis of the factors and principles underlying their successful implementation.


Artikkel
Sammendrag

Cellular food technologies aim to decouple animal protein production from animal bodies and address the negative environmental, ethical, and human health implications of animal agriculture through its substitution. This marks a major rupture with previous expectations for agricultural biotechnology. If technically and commercially successful cellular agriculture could have far reaching effects that have yet to be the subject of concerted public or political discussion. These include, fundamentally altering human-nature relations, disrupting existing food systems, patterns of land use, rural economies, drivers of environmental change and biodiversity in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

In this paper we explore the environmental and rural visions of cellular agriculture in mainstream news and industry media, their contestation and the narrative silences. These silences represent the under- and un-explored questions, contingencies, and eventualities of envisioned developments. Our analysis highlights how anticipated efficiency gains are central to the realisation of several interlinked but separate positive environmental visions. Notably, that cellular agriculture will be able to replace conventional agriculture and feed the future whilst reducing environmental burdens and land use pressures. However, these visions leave many potential consequences unaddressed. We therefore explore these narrative silences. In doing so we explore the creative and destructive potential of these technologies with a specific emphasis on their environmental, rural, and spatial implications. In conclusion, we identify and anticipate environmental and rural policy implications stemming from these technologies that require further consideration, public and political discussion.


Artikkel
Sammendrag

In this study, the aim was to advance the knowledge about mental health status in the Norwegian farming population. Based on the dimensions in the Job Demand and Control model (Karasek, 1979); work demands and control, and the importance of recognition and dignity (Andrew Sayer, 2011), the aim was to study the effects of work demands, sense of independence and valuation on mental health status among farmers. It included an assessment of how the sectorial level, the sectors of dairy production and vegetable- and potato production, explains farmers` mental health status. A postal survey was conducted in 2012 using a structured questionnaire, and I included farmers from two sectors in the Norwegian agriculture: dairy farming (n = 493) and vegetable and potato farming (n = 122). The analyses were carried out by multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM). This study concludes that low work demands in farming, strong sense of independence as a farmer, and farmers` perception of valuation associate with good mental health. The mental health status in dairy farmers and vegetable and potato farmers and the effects of work demands, sense of independence and valuation on mental health status, were equal across groups.


Artikkel
Sammendrag

In response to ongoing economic downturns in the small-scale fishing sector, there have been calls for fishing businesses to add value to fishing catches. Whilst such activities would have gendered implications, such proposals often do not consider the gendered contexts in which entrepreneurship is placed, nor how this form of entrepreneurship works for the women involved. The paper draws on in-depth narrative interviews with women in fishing families in England and Wales who have started, initiated or explored entrepreneurial opportunities to examine i) whether entrepreneurship enables a (re)negotiation of gender relations within families and ii) how entrepreneurship develops over the lifecourse. The research is conceptually framed through the literature on women’s ‘entrepreneurship’, family embedded perspectives of entrepreneurship, ‘Mumpreneurship’ combined with a lifecourse approach. I found that although women’s traditional invisibility often became reproduced through their entrepreneurship in fishing family contexts, women’s fisheries entrepreneurship challenged traditional gender relations. In becoming entrepreneurs women negotiated their entrepreneurship with other gendered roles, such as motherhood, over the lifecourse. I argue that shifting the discourse from fisheries diversification to entrepreneurship make it possible to take women seriously by fully viewing them as fisheries workers in their own right in both research and policy. Sociologia Ruralis, doi:10.1111/soru.12343


Bok
Sammendrag

In this unique edited collection, social scientists reflect upon and openly share insights gathered from researching people and the sea. Understanding how people use, relate to and interact with coastal and marine environments has never been more important, with social scientists having an increasingly vital contribution to make. Yet practical experiences in deploying social science approaches in this field are typically hidden away in field notes and unpublished doctoral manuscripts, with the opportunity for shared learning that comes from doing research often missed. There is a need for reflection on how social science knowledge is produced. This collection presents experiences from the field, its necessary reflexivity and innovation in methods, and the challenges and opportunities of translating across disciplines and policy. It brings to light the tacit expertise needed to study people and the sea and offers lessons which readers could employ in their own research. With a focus on the future direction of marine social sciences, the volume is highly relevant to masters and doctoral students and more experienced researchers engaged in studying people and the sea, as well as policy makers, practitioners and scientists wishing to understand the social dimension of marine and coastal environments. Forlag: Palgrave Macmillan


Artikkel
Sammendrag

In line with the multifunctional agriculture discourse, care farming is highlighted by governments as a promising service—as an additional source of income for farmers and as a current alternative or supplement to ordinary public care services. Based on the rather modest number of care farming services and their often unstable existence, this paper examines critical aspects of the market relation between providers and buyers when it comes to ensuring sustainable and persistent farm-based day care services. Our analysis is based on interviews with farmers as providers of farm-based day care services for people with dementia living in their own homes and with representatives from the municipal health sector as buyers of these services. One of the findings is that the askew, yet harmony-characterised, power structure between the market actors makes professional ordering of care farming services critical to the providers’ endurance and wellbeing. The paper concludes that the market relation between providers and buyers could be strengthened, but vulnerabilities related to such a relationship are inevitable. Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 82, February 2021


Artikkel
Sammendrag

Within Norwegian agriculture, combined dairy and beef production has been identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and thus targeted for significant reductions. The article examines the path dependency of the dairy and beef production system in Norway and focuses on identifying lock-ins. The authors used qualitative methods to gather information from stakeholder meetings in Trøndelag and Rogaland counties. They explored the stakeholders’ responses to two different visions of agriculture in the future: the improved utilisation of outfields using Norwegian Red cattle and increasing production per animal by using feed concentrates. Six key areas of lock-in were identified: technology investment, culture, feeding strategy, policy, access to new farmland through moorland conversion, and ownership of the climate issue. The findings suggest that the current pathway in agriculture is strongly locked into production orientation through these lock-ins, making a production reduction option difficult to implement. There was also widespread belief among the stakeholders that the system of combined dairy and beef production was a climate-friendly option, suggesting that farmers are not convinced that a change in this direction is required. The authors conclude that the option of reducing production would be difficult to implement without addressing the multiple lock-in effects.