Rapport
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Den regionale arbeidsdelingen har siden etterkrigstiden vært et sentralt element i norsk landbruk. Gjennom ulike landbrukspolitiske virkemiddel under samle-betegnelsen kanaliseringspolitikken, har det blitt lagt opp til at kornproduksjonen prioriteres på de beste jordbruksområdene. Husdyrhold og grovfôrproduksjon ble derfor gradvis skjøvet ut til daler og områder som av ulike agronomiske, topografiske og miljømessige årsaker ikke egner seg til kornproduksjon. Frem til rundt 1990 ble denne politikken gjennomført gjennom å justere prisforholdet mellom korn og melk, men grunnet internasjonale tilnærminger og et ønske om å redusere kostnadene i jordbruket på 1990-tallet ble det lagt om til andre virkemidler. Denne rapporten tar for seg utviklingen i den regionale arbeidsdelingen siden 1990 og finner at den til tross for endrede virkemidler og en viss regional omfordeling kan sies å være relativt stabil.


  • Gordon Marcus Haring
Rapport
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This report is part of the Coolcrowd research project, funded by the Research Council of Norway, and has the goal to assess the potential for a local crowdfunding program that enables Norwegian farmers to install climate change mitigation technologies on their farms and the public to invest in local climate mitigation measures. A secondary project objective is to develop alternative business models for a locally crowdfunded climate program. This report aims to contribute to this objective by mapping the business model experimentation process from May 2016 to July 2019. The project was executed in an international research consortium consisting of partners in Norway, the Netherlands, New Zealand and Australia. The report also provides an overview of the business model designs that were developed by the research team.


Rapport
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Med utgangspunkt i intervjuer med 24 naturbaserte reiselivsaktører i tre ulike regioner i Norge analyserer denne rapporten motiver, nettverk og innovasjon i slike bedrifter. Datainnsamlingen ble gjort i perioden våren 2017 til våren 2018, og inngikk i det tverrfaglige forskningsprosjektet Biotour. De fleste bedriftene var små, relativt nystartete og baserte seg på å tilby unike naturbaserte opplevelser. Tolkning av intervjudataene viser at det å gjøre en naturbasert livsstil om til et økonomisk bærekraftig produkt var et viktig motiv for etablering av bedriftene. Bedriftene er nyskapende, og nettverk er viktig både for utvikling og daglig drift.


Rapport
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Regjeringen fremmet i sin politiske plattform fra Jeløya i januar 2018 et forslag om en styrt avvikling av pelsdyrnæringen, der denne nå er foreslått avviklet innen 1. februar 2025. Målet med denne utredningen har vært å undersøke og vurdere hvordan lokalsamfunn med pelsdyrfarmer vil påvirkes av regjeringens foreslåtte avvikling av pelsdyroppdrett. Vi har sett på hvorvidt og i hvilken grad avviklingen vil være kritisk for de enkelte kommunene og på de økonomiske konsekvensene for fylkene som har pelsdyroppdrett. Deretter har det blitt gjort en mer inngående analyse av fire utvalgte lokalsamfunn som tradisjonelt har hatt mange pelsdyr. Det forekommer mange ulike tall og beregninger om næringen og vi presenterer her bakgrunnen til de ulike resultatene. Vår analyse viser at i og med de svært lave prisene som er på skinn i dag vil en avvikling ha meget begrensede økonomiske konsekvenser for distrikts-Norge. Byrden vil først og fremst være tung for de 167 pelsdyroppdretterne som driver virksomhet i dag.


Rapport
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Rapporten er en del av prosjektet «Nye strategier for avl, fôring, hygiene, helse og driftsledelse i automatiske melkesystemer (AMS)». Rapporten har som formål å belyse endringene i norsk landbruk som er knyttet til den kraftige økningen i andelen bruk med melkerobot de siste 20 årene, med særlig blikk på bondens ståsted. Rapporten baserer seg på analyser av en landsdekkende spørreundersøkelse blant et representativt utvalg melkeprodusenter, som ble gjennomført av Ruralis – Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning i årsskiftet 2017/2018. Noen hovedtema er melkerobotens effekt på arbeidshverdag, HMS, livskvalitet, familieliv, arbeidsdeling, psykisk og fysisk helse. Denne omveltningen i norsk landbruk handler ikke bare om en endring til en mer effektiv driftsmåte, men er også en endring for gården i sin helhet, og for de menneskene som bor og/eller jobber på gården.


Rapport
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This report presents a main deliverable of work package 3 in the Coolcrowd project, an international research project funded by the Research Council of Norway. The aim of the project is to develop a crowdfunding program that would enable travelers to offset their GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions locally by supporting Norwegian farmers who want to adopt more climate friendly practices. The main objective of WP3 is to identify farmers’ interest in participating in a locally crowdfunded climate program. The report analyzes the findings of a national survey investigating farmers’ interest in climate change, particularly mitigation and a local crowdfunding program.


  • Rob Burton
  • Constanza Parra
  • Inger Birkeland
  • Katrina Siivonen
Artikkel
Sammendrag

Long overshadowed by more utilitarian and economically-centred methodological approaches to sustainable development, the relationship between culture and sustainability can be considered an under-studied aspect within the sustainability and more recently resilience literature. The use of the term 'culture' in multiple contexts has generated a variety of interrelated meanings and definitions. Pretty and Pilgrim identify four bridges connecting nature and culture which provide a useful framework for understanding the interaction between culture and sustainability. The uses of the word culture nowadays denote in many cases a relation to social progress or development. Different cultures value nature in different ways and thus have different connection with their natural environments. Norms and institutions emerge from the different values, practices and knowledge types mediating the nature—culture interface. The nature—culture interface is socially embedded in a dynamic multi-scalar system of socio-political and cultural relationships. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book. I Birkeland, I., Burton, R.J.F., Para, C., og Siivonen, K. Cultural Sustainability and the Nature-Culture Interface: Livelihoods, policies, and methodologies, s. 1-17. London: Taylor & Francis


Artikkel
Sammendrag

High-value agri-cultural landscapes across Europe are important for the local economy, maintaining biodiversity and preserving cultural heritage. However, studies indicate that the family farming cultures maintaining these landscapes are dying out and, consequently, the landscapes themselves are increasingly under threat. This chapter contends that the lack of focus of landscape policies on cultural sustainability plays a major role in this decline. An analysis of survey results from the Lake District National Park (United Kingdom) suggests that reductions in sheep stocking rates (promoting environmental sustainability) affect community size and social interaction; health and safety regulations (promoting social sustainability) restrict early childhood socialisation and identity development; use of contractors for traditional buildings (preserving traditional structures) limits the extent to which the landscape and culture become consubstantial; restrictions on building a second farm house (preserving tourism value) conflicts with changing aspirations of the next generation; and the influx of new cultural beliefs as the economic prosperity of the area increases conflict with traditional values and expectations. The result is a major cultural shift. To preserve important cultural landscapes as ‘living’ landscapes, therefore, the implications of policies for cultural sustainability also need to be considered. I Birkeland, I., Burton, R.J.F., Para, C., og Siivonen, K. (red.) Cultural Sustainability and the Nature-Culture Interface: Livelihoods, policies, and methodologies, 137-151. London: Taylor & Francis


Artikkel
Sammendrag

Decisions regarding second home owners' position in a host community (assigned rights, influence and further privileges - or the lack of such) have a moral dimension. At the core of the issue is the question of how local resources should be distributed between year-round residents and second home owners as a kind of hybrid between tourists and part-time residents. In this chapter, moral considerations regarding this issue are presented and explained by referring to research conducted in Norway. The chapter gives an account for two different approaches to social organization (a sedentarist perspective and a mobilities paradigm perspective) that may be used as a basis for policy concerning second home owners' position, and the moral implications of these two approaches are discussed. It concludes that the question of second home owners' position in the host community is a moral dilemma, where any solution may bring about unfortunate results from various perspectives. Thus, social scientists' role should be to make sure that every perspective and potential consequences inform the debates, so that decision makers at various levels can make well-considered decisions in this matter. I Hall, C.M. og D. Müller (red.) The Routledge handbook of second home tourism and mobilities, s. 258-266. London: Routledge


Artikkel
Sammendrag

The importance of social capital for agricultural and rural development is explored in this paper through the analysis of seven comprehensive case studies that have been carried out in the framework of the European RETHINK research programme. The case studies are based on rather different initiatives at the interface between agricultural and rural development in Germany, Spain, Italy, Lithuania, Latvia, Denmark and Israel. The case studies represent a broad spectrum of socio‐economic and agricultural contexts and focus on the role of social capital for development. We explore how social capital materialises in the context of rural areas, and what nuances it acquires in different rural environments. The case studies are used to better understand, and to illustrate, different expressions of social capital in different situations. Within the broad notion of social capital, we pay particular attention to trust, cooperation, sense of community, and culture and tradition. All four dimensions play a critical role in agricultural and rural development as they affect how people relate to each other, organise themselves and interact for development. Sociologia Ruralis 59(1): 66-91


Artikkel
Sammendrag

he Common Agricultural Policy can be seen as a partial success story because it has resulted in increased food production at reasonable prices for consumers. However, its main focus was on agricultural productivity and economic growth. Although recent CAP reforms have led to better integration of agricultural and rural policies there is a need for more recognition of the role of multi-actor governance in aligning farm modernization with sustainable rural development. In this paper we explore how multi-actor governance systems are being implemented and the limiting and enabling factors involved. Our analysis is based on eleven case studies carried out as part of the trans-disciplinary RETHINK research programme. In this paper we first identify five strategies that we interpret as responses to the challenge of reconnecting farm modernization and sustainable rural development. Based on the experience within these strategies we discuss six vital conditions that cut across these different strategies: they include the role of informal networks, effective coordination, polycentricity, bottom-up initiatives, agency and trust and transparency. Although most of these conditions are recognized by the scientific world, in practice they are rarely translated into effective policy strategies to support territorial development. Journal of Rural Studies 59: 252-262