Grønn Forskning i Midt-Norge har siden 2008 søkt å fremme forskning som møter behovene til aktørene i regionens jordbruksnæring gjennom dialog og samhandling mellom bønder, FoU-miljøer og offentlige aktører. Tematiske næringsgrupper utgjør bærebjelken i initiativet, i samspill med innspillseminar rettet mot virkemiddelapparatet og prosjektverksteder for videreutvikling av forskningsprosjekter. Denne rapporten sammenfatter Ruralis’ evaluering av Grønn Forskning i Midt-Norge, som er gjennomført i april-august 2021. Evalueringen ble etterspurt av Trøndelag fylkeskommune i forbindelsen med tilskudd til videre drift av Grønn Forskning 2.0 høsten 2020. Arbeidet er utført på grunnlag av satsningens egne arbeidsdokumenter og rapporter, en studie av relevant forskningslitteratur, og 30 kvalitative intervjuer med informanter tilknyttet initiativet.
- Frode Flemsæter
- Vegard Gundersen
- Margrete Skår
- Berit Köhler
The meaning of riverine landscapes to society has evolved to serve our ever-changing needs, from harvesting and transporting resources to arenas for outdoor recreation and contemplation. From the 18th century, rivers have been important resources for industry and hydroelectric power. The objective of this study is to explore and describe the rhythms of everyday use of a river environment using multiple quantitative and qualitative methods, and to identify subjective, multiple and often competing relations. We use Lefebvre's concept of rhythmanalysis and Ingold's contextual approach as a tool for bridging scientific and methodological disciplines. Our results show a wide breadth in everyday activities and a dynamic relation between people and the river on multiple time scales. The use of the river environment appears orderly and predictable, but the wide spectrum of everyday users on different spatiotemporal scales is diverse and forms multiple rhythms at each locality. The partial lockdown in Norway in response to Covid-19 and the subsequent shifts in people's daily routines changed the rhythm of daily and weekly use patterns, and demonstrates how rhythms can change rapidly in the face of large-scale, societal agitation. We argue that rhythmanalysis is a useful analytical tool in interdisciplinary approaches to better understand the use and valuations of landscapes.
- Egil Petter Stræte
- Kari Anne Holte
- Kari Kjestveit
- Hilmar Rommetvedt
It is well documented that farming is a high-risk industry in terms of fatalities and injuries, and with numerous risk factors associated with operating the farm. It has also proved difficult to find evidence for the effectiveness of interventions. Moreover, farming is in transition, with ongoing technological transformations as well as becoming increasingly more globalized. Thus, new perspectives that allow for more systemic understandings in the management and promotion of occupational health and safety (OHS) are needed. Our main objective is to present an integrated theoretical understanding of the farm as an enterprise and an integrated element in the political-economic agricultural system. The main question is how can farmers organize and manage the farm, in order to simultaneously improve efficiency, quality and OHS based on systemic models for OHS and a systemic understanding of the political-economical system of Norwegian agriculture? The framework is adapted to the Norwegian agricultural context, with ongoing transformations both technologically and organizationally, including visions and plans set by Norwegian agriculture itself. However, the framework can be applied irrespective of national context. lack N.L., Neumann W.P., Noy I. (eds) Proceedings of the 21st Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2021). IEA 2021. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 221. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74608-7_26
In this paper a methodology for a balanced readiness assessment of novel agricultural technologies is developed and presented. The methodology expand on the well-known Technology Readiness Level (TRL) assessments, with a method for assessing TRL as well as Market Readiness Level (MRL), Regulatory Readiness Level (RRL), Acceptance Readiness Level (ARL), and Organizational Readiness Level (ORL) in concert. In the article the Balanced Readiness Level assessment (BRLa) methodology is employed and illustrated on 1) a set of 36 novel agricultural technologies, and 2) on the development of a technology for virtual agricultural fences. The empirical applications in this article indicates that the BRLa- methodology may serve as a fruitful approach for a compound assessment of emerging technologies. The methdodology is relevant for actors involved in advisory services, funding, investment and technology development.
Agricultural activities and associated land use change are a major contributor to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, making climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector all the more critical. However, farmers' willingness to adopt GHG abatement depends, to a large extent, on the financial implications of new practices. Climate change mitigation is unlikely to be adopted without external (financial, socio-cultural, or other) incentives. The research presented in this paper considers farmers' preferences for financing climate change mitigation practices through public crowdfunding. As a first study of its kind, we investigate farmers' attitudes towards climate change mitigation, knowledge of crowdfunding as a fundraising method, and interest in using public crowdfunding campaigns to finance on-farm mitigation practices. Based on a choice experiment survey with 443 Norwegian farmers, we show that knowledge about crowdfunding as an alternative finance method is generally low. Respondents who are interested in using crowdfunding prefer donation- or reward-based crowdfunding models that cover the full cost of mitigation over a loan-based model or campaigns that only fund a proportion of the costs. A financially secure farming business, previous exposure to crowdfunding, and a strong sense of responsibility to abate climate change are associated with higher farmers’ interest in using crowdfunding. We find that farmers in Norway are hesitant to be publicly presented as recipients of crowdfunding, which suggests that crowdfunding is best set up as joint campaigns (e.g. with other farmers) that are run by intermediary organisations (rather than by individual farmers). Our findings highlight that, while opportunities to use crowdfunding as a fundraising method for agricultural climate change may be limited, properly designed campaigns can provide an effective instrument to engage certain groups of farmers in on-farm climate change mitigation.
For å løfta grunnrenta fram i den politiske debatten legg denne artikkelen fram ein analyse av prinsippet om skatt på grunnrente med vekt på Ricardo, Marx, George og den norske historia. Skatt på grunnrente vart brukt for å forvalta fossekrafta og oljeressursane, og var svar på korleis nasjonalstaten skulle tøyla industrisamfunnets veksande ulikskap gjennom ein moralsk politikk. Ei drøfting av grunnrenta er relevant for korleis me skal forvalta våre felles naturressursar i framtidas bioøkonomi.
- Magnar Forbord
- Stian Stensland
- Knut Fossgard
- Kristin Løseth
I Fredman, Peter og Jan Vidar Haukeland (red.) Nordic Perspectives on Nature-based Tourism. From place-based resources to value-added experiences
Aims: This paper focuses on how social inequality is associated with overweight and obesity in children. There is a lack of research with a focus on an important distinction in social inequality, namely geography. The aim of this study was to reduce this knowledge gap by looking closely at the links between rurality and overweight.
Methods: The findings in this paper are based on in-depth interviews with school nurses and teachers in rural Norway. The focus was on their experiences with and knowledge about overweight and obesity numbers in rural versus urban areas.
Results: We used Bourdieu’s terminology to address the challenges related to urban–rural differences, and found that cultural factors connected to tradition, identity and courtesy play an important role in the rural overweight and obesity discourse.
Conclusions: Actors and ‘experts’ working with overweight and obesity and national guidelines need to understand rural contexts and customs and address problems of the countryside on rural, not exclusively urban, premises. Different contexts imply different needs when it comes to reducing the inequalities between rural and urban areas regarding overweight and obesity.
- Madeleine Gustavsson
- Katia Frangoudes
- Lars Lindström
- María Catalina Ávarez
- Maricela de la Torre-Castro
This paper examines the need to embed gender in an empirical examination or conceptual use of Blue Justice. In developing the Blue Justice concept, there is a need to avoid reproducing ongoing and historical omissions of gender issues in small-scale fisheries governance and research. By drawing on the concepts of procedural and distributive justice, this paper explores how gender equity and equality and Blue Justice concerns interrelate, inform and shape each other in fisheries governance. These issues are explored through an analysis of four cases: Zanzibar, Tanzania, Chile, France and the United Kingdom (UK). We find that gendered power inequities in fisheries and women’s marginalised participation in fisheries governance are associated with procedural injustices. These further shape the distributive outcomes in fisheries governance. We argue that any effort to integrate gender into Blue Justice has to address the way that power relations are gendered in a particular fishery – extending the focus beyond the sea and including issues and concerns that are not always included in traditional fisheries governance arrangements revolving around fish resource management.
- Anne Margrethe (Maggi) Brigham
- Jonathon W. Moses
- Pia Piroschka Otte
- Natalia Mæhle
- Boukje Huijben
- Jorick de Vries
This article reviews research on the relationship between property rights and nationalism. A property rights perspective to the study of nationalism is relevant to understanding the origins and development of nationalism and nation states. Yet, key theorists of nationalism have mostly ignored the relationship between property rights and nationalism, or looked at it only indirectly. There are a variety of ways in which ownership or possession more generally can be related to nationalism, for instance through colonialism, racism, and dispossession (Bannerji et al. 2001; Bhandar 2016; Bhandar & Toscano 2015). This review, however, in order to build a consistent perspective on the historical emergence of nation states and nationalism, will have its main focus on property rights, property regimes and state-building. The literature on state-building and democratization bears important insights about this relationship which can be applied to the study of nationalism. This review will therefore draw on such literature, in addition to works on nationalism where the topic of property has been mentioned, to show how an integrated property rights perspective to the study of nationalism may yield important insights to our understanding of nations and nationalism. Nationalism and Private Property – The State of Nationalism
Klimagassutslippene i norsk jordbruk skal ned, men det er uklart hvordan dette best kan gjøres uten at det går utover andre jordbrukspolitiske målsettinger slik som jordbruk over hele landet. Denne analysen ser på muligheter til å opprettholde en stabil matproduksjon og arealbruk gitt at utslipp av klimagasser skal ned og gitt at kjøttforbruket skal reduseres i tråd med myndighetenes kostråd. Ved hjelp av sektormodellen Jordmod vurderes ulike måter å utforme økonomiske virkemidler i jordbruket på, som kan forene disse målene og forutsetningene. Analysen viser at økt bruk av arealtilskudd kan være en viktig nøkkel siden det gir et insentiv til å holde areal i drift selv med færre beitedyr.
- Anne Margrethe (Maggi) Brigham
- Jonathon W. Moses
I fremtiden vil Norges økonomi måtte bli mindre avhengig av petroleum både fordi det er en ikke-fornybar ressurs, og på grunn av at vi må slutte å bidra til klimaendringer. Norske myndigheter har derfor begynt å søke aktivt etter et grønnere grunnlag for vår økonomiske fremtid, og bioøkonomien og fornybar energi ansees å være attraktive alternativ. Denne artikkelen ser på hvordan forvaltningen av sentrale naturressurser påvirker mulighetene til å finansiere den fremtidige norske velferdsstaten. For å gjøre dette sammenligner vi forvaltningsregimet som brukes for olje med dem som brukes på vind- og vannkraft, havbruk og bioprospektering. De ulike regimene spiller en avgjørende rolle for størrelsen på og skattleggingen av grunnrenten som ressursene frembringer. Resultatet av vår kartlegging viser at det har vært et brudd i forvaltningstradisjonen for naturressurser. Myndigheten har valgt bort de suksessfulle forvaltningsregimene fra vannkraft og petroleum, og erstattet dem med regimer som verken kan sikre tilsvarende offentlig kontroll eller grunnrentebeskatning av vindkraft, havbruk og bioprospektering. Vi konkluderer med at dagens forvaltningsregime overfor disse sektorene ikke kan bidra til en offentlig rikdom som kan måle seg med den vi har blitt vant til fra oljen. Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift 1-2021 (Vol. 37)
Uganda is among the top three refugee hosting countries in the world and the leading one in Africa, accommodating an estimated 1.4 million refugees. This report provides an empirical assessment of how the Corona Pandemic has affected food security and nutrition for refugees and host community members in the Adjumani District in Northern Uganda. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for more funding to the World Food Programme in Adjumani, and the necessity of building more resilient refugee food systems in preparation for future crises.