In line with the multifunctional agriculture discourse, care farming is highlighted by governments as a promising service—as an additional source of income for farmers and as a current alternative or supplement to ordinary public care services. Based on the rather modest number of care farming services and their often unstable existence, this paper examines critical aspects of the market relation between providers and buyers when it comes to ensuring sustainable and persistent farm-based day care services. Our analysis is based on interviews with farmers as providers of farm-based day care services for people with dementia living in their own homes and with representatives from the municipal health sector as buyers of these services. One of the findings is that the askew, yet harmony-characterised, power structure between the market actors makes professional ordering of care farming services critical to the providers’ endurance and wellbeing. The paper concludes that the market relation between providers and buyers could be strengthened, but vulnerabilities related to such a relationship are inevitable. Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 82, February 2021
The reappearance of large carnivores in Europe can be viewed as a conservation success, however, the increase in carnivore numbers has also resulted in an increase in livestock predation. While multiple studies have been conducted into farmers’ attitudes to large carnivores, the consequence of predation on farmers’ mental health and wellbeing is under-researched. Using a mixed-method approach, this study examines the potential regional impact of the presence of wolves on farmers’ psychological distress in Norway. Data from the nationally representative Trends in Norwegian Agriculture Survey was analysed using a multiple regression analysis. Psychological distress was measured using a 5 item Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Comparison with register data of livestock losses showed that sheep farmers living in regions where sheep have been killed by wolves within the last 5 years have higher psychological distress scores than (a) sheep farmers elsewhere in Norway, and (b) farmers in the same region without sheep. What makes our study different from others is that the Trends survey was not targeted at the wolf issue directly, meaning that accusations of farmer bias against wolves when responding to surveys cannot explain our results. We support this conclusion by exploring (and, ultimately, dismissing) alternative explanations and through 20 qualitative interviews with sheep farmers in a predation region (regional county of Hedmark) to investigate how carnivore presence is experienced. Stress, anxiety, sleep deprivation, and reduced quality of life were reported as key consequences of the carnivore pressure. The findings suggest that farmers do not need to experience animal deaths and injuries personally to experience the distress of predation. Living nearby and assisting farmer colleagues make this a shared condition. Journal of Rural Studies 78:1-11
Successful integration of immigrants is vital for rural areas facing population decline and labour shortage. Yet little is known about the role civil society plays in this process and about the factors that promote or hamper acceptance of immigrants by the local population. By using data from a national survey of the Norwegian population, this article examines rural‐urban differences in attitudes toward immigrants and immigration, and what characteristics rural and urban residents consider important for immigrants who may settle in their locality. The results indicate that people living in rural areas express more negative attitudes toward immigrants and immigration compared to people living in urban areas. Additionally, rural residents place greater importance than their urban counterparts do on immigrants’ participating in local events, speaking the native language, and being willing to adapt to Norwegian values. Sociologia Ruralis, Volume 59, Issue 4
This report is based on a case study related to work package five on the PLAID project, a European Union funded project under Horizon 2020. The project deals with demonstration activities in European agriculture. In the Norwegian context, this primarily involve field days, field walks and experimental fields. Events are commonly organised by the Norwegian Agricultural Extension Service (NLR) in cooperation with host farmers, but often also involve county officials, experts and other agricultural organizations as partners. Demonstrations provide a meeting place for farmers with different knowledge and experience, as well as advisors and experts with research-based knowledge and knowledge of local conditions. By sharing experiences, participants are able to develop a better understanding of both the theory and practice behind the activity and thus improve outcomes. Findings from two Norwegian studies in combination with those from other parts of Europe will help improve the organisation and effectiveness of demonstration activities in Norway. This case report will describe a theme day about berry production, how Norwegian berry farmers are encouraged to increase the production of berries in tunnels, extend the berry season and optimize the use of fertilizer and pesticides.
This report is based on a case study related to work package five on the PLAID project, a European Union funded project under Horizon 2020. The project deals with demonstration activities in European agriculture. In the Norwegian context, this primarily involve field days, field walks and experimental fields. Events are commonly organised by the Norwegian Agricultural Extension Service (NLR) in cooperation with host farmers, but often also involve county officials, experts and other agricultural organizations as partners. Demonstrations provide a meeting place for farmers with different knowledge and experience, as well as advisors and experts with research-based knowledge and knowledge of local conditions. By sharing experiences, participants are able to develop a better understanding of both the theory and practice behind the activity and thus improve outcomes. Findings from two Norwegian studies in combination with those from other parts of Europe will help improve the organisation and effectiveness of demonstration activities in Norway. This case report will describe a demonstration day addressing issues regarding ecological sustainability, how to maintain fertility of the ground and protect the soil from rain and erosion. In addition, the demonstration includes the principles of ecology and climate-related issues.
This paper, based on data from two recent national surveys of the residents of municipalities in Norway, compares rural and urban elderly people’s degree of satisfaction with locally available services and their reported involvement with others in the community. It focuses in particular on their living conditions and indicators of well-being, including their access to home care and medical services and their degree of participation and trust in local social networks. Two findings stand out. First, contrary to common expectations, rural residents are at least as satisfied with their home care and medical services as their urban counterparts are. This parity reflects Norway's policy of subsidizing social welfare services in sparsely populated areas. Second, in keeping with common expectations, they report more frequent social contacts with their neighbours and greater participation in voluntary work than urban residents do. European Countryside · Vol. 10 · 2018 · No. 2 · p. 232-246
S. Shortall and B. Bock (red). Gender and rural globalisation: International perspectives on gender and rural development. CAB International
Rapporten er basert på resultatene fra et forprosjekt gjennomført i seks distriktskommuner i Midt-Norge 2015/2016. Formålet med forprosjektet var å undersøke hvordan kommuner og frivillig sektor samarbeider innen eldreomsorg, og hva det er som fremmer og styrker samarbeid og hva det er som hemmer samarbeid. Vi har undersøkt hvordan frivillig sektor bidrar innen eldreomsorgen og hvilke utfordringer frivillig sektor har. Rapporten baserer seg på intervju med totalt 23 personer i seks distriktskommuner, 12 representanter for kommunenes eldreomsorg og 11 representanter for frivillig sektor. I tillegg har vi undersøkt holdninger til og deltakelse i frivillig arbeid, basert på data fra «Lokalsamfunnsundersøkelsen», en landsdekkende spørreundersøkelse som Norsk senter for bygdeforskning gjennomfører jevnlig.
I denne vitenskapelige antologien formidler en rekke samfunnsforskere forskningsbasert kunnskap om lokalsamfunn, hva et lokalsamfunn kan være og hvilken rolle det spiller. Lokalsamfunn representerer både endring og stabilitet og kapitlene presenterer ulike tematiske innfallsvinkler til lokalsamfunn som fenomen. Sentrale spørsmål i boken handler om hva et lokalsamfunn er, og hvilken rolle fellesskap, identitet, kultur og lokal utvikling spiller i dag. Hvilken betydning har organisasjoner og institusjoner når det kommer til å skape og reprodusere lokalsamfunn, og hvordan påvirkes lokalsamfunn av fenomener som globalisering og mobilitet? Boken har som mål å kunne tilby oppdatert kunnskap og innsikt på feltet. Boken har 21 kapitler skrevet av forskere fra ulike fag, blant annet sosiologi, geografi, antropologi og samfunnsplanlegging. I likhet med lokalsamfunnene den beskriver, representerer boken mangfold og variasjon, både i metode, teori og tematikk. Boken henvender seg til studenter og forskere innenfor samfunnsvitenskapelige fag, fagpersoner innen samfunnsplanlegging og forvaltning og til alle som er opptatt av og interessert i spørsmål som berører lokalsamfunn i bygd og by. Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk
I M. Villa & M.S. Haugen (red.) Lokalsamfunn. Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk s. 303-321
Despite the rising divorce rate among farm families in Norway, surprisingly little research has examined these break-ups. Drawing on interviews with farm women whose marital or cohabiting relationships broke down, we explore the contradictions between individualization and the moral responsibility embedded in the patriarchal discourse of the family farm. We ask whether farm family dissolution represents a break with patriarchal ideology and practice, and thus threatens the survival of the family farm. A key finding is the struggle to balance establishing new lives for themselves with meeting their felt obligations to the farm. None of the women exercised their full legal rights if they worried that it might destroy the farm business. By ensuring the survival of the farm and the well-being of their children, the women's handling of divorce conforms to cultural conventions and protects the family farm. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, vol. 22 (1) 37-49
This article draws on interviews with farm women and men who have experienced a family break up to analyse their experiences of gender expectations in family farming, their fear of stigmatisation and their receipt of help from the rural community. The interviews illustrate their compliance with dominant constructions of rural gendered moralities. Men struggled to live up to the ideals of rural masculinity, which centre on hard work, self-sufficiency and mental strength. Women, who were strongly influenced by the moral norms of rural womanhood, managed to retain their feminine dignity as being caring and considerate of the family. Rural communities are often characterised as nurturing close relationships, but also as being pervaded by social control and gossip. Both women and men interpreted their break up as a private matter and deliberately avoided disclosing their relationship problems in order to protect themselves and their families from gossip, which made it difficult for them to seek and receive help from the rural community. While some of the hardships are recognisable for any divorced couple, the article is concerned with the rural farm particularities of the divorce situation. Sociologia Ruralis. DOI: 10.1111/soru.12065
B. Pini, B.Brandth and J.Little (eds.) Feminism and ruralities
This article is concerned with service work conducted on farms, and it explores how men and women's bodies are involved in producing and mediating positive aspects of the rural. The main question is whether the two types of work, farming and tourist hosting, are represented by compatible or conflicting bodies. The analysis is based on interviews with couples from 20 farms. Findings show that farm heritage and culture is central to the farm tourist product, and that dress and appearance, as signifiers of both a farming lifestyle and professional tourist hosting, hold fewer tensions than could be expected from the taken-for-granted difference between the two types of work. Relations between hosts and guests in the different spaces of nature and the home disclose gendered challenges. Men need to incorporate caring aspects in their wilderness activities. Women struggle to balance their own needs and emotions with tourists' expectations – as the personal and the home are commercialised as part of the rural idyll. Interestingly, as service work expands into the agricultural sector, our findings indicate that these two different types of work may gradually lose their distinct embodied differences. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 14, No. 2, 101 – 115
Elisabete Figueiredo and Antonio Raschi (eds): Fertile links? Connections between tourism activities, socioeconomic contexts and local development in European rural areas, Firenze University Press, 107-127