Report
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The purpose of this report is to present new knowledge about farmers' and landowners' experiences with rented farmland and their impression of the rented land situation in Norwegian agriculture. The objective is for such knowledge to form the basis for more appropriate local reallocation of agricultural land to achieve an efficient and sustainable production of food and feed. This has been a main goal for the LANDFRAG project of which this report is a part.


Article
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Many countries have included agriculture as one of the sectors where they intend to obtain significant greenhouse gas emission reductions. In Norway, the dairy-beef sector, in particular, has been targeted for considerable emission cuts. Despite publicly expressed interest within the agricultural sector for reducing emissions, significant measures have yet to be implemented. In this paper, we draw on qualitative data from Norway when examining the extent the wider agri-food network around farmers promotes or restrains the transition toward low-emission agricultural production. A qualitative analysis based on interviews with key stakeholders from various parts of the agri-food network of dairy-beef indicates that, if it is up to the dairy-beef system itself, it will develop in the direction of continued increased production volumes and increased efficiency in production, combined with moderate measures to reduce emissions. There is an obvious reluctance to stimulate the consumer demand toward other products or meat products with reduced emissions because such a solution would complicate full exploitation of existing agricultural resources and hence could bring considerable negative economic consequences. Another factor limiting the scope and drive towards a low-carbon production is that the effects of various potential climate measures do not appear as unambiguous. Our study indicates that the dairy-beef sector will likely not reach the goal of reduced emissions from its own initiatives. Rather, significant changes would probably require both push and pull support from forces outside the agricultural system. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-020-10134-5


Note
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Klimaendringer, befolkningsvekst og behovet for økt matproduksjon skaper utfordringer for landbruket. En del av løsningen for landbruket er å forbedre praksis ved hjelp av miljøvennlig innovasjon. Teknologiutviklingen i landbruket skjer fort og har økende oppmerksomhet på presisjonsdyrking, digitalisering og automatisering for et mer bærekraftig landbruk. Det er et behov for å forstå hvordan utviklingen skjer, hvor langt vi er kommet, og hvordan vi skal møte teknologiutviklingen og legge til rette for den. Dette notatet beskriver innovasjonsprosesser og begreper knyttet til modenhetsmåling. Det har blitt gjennomført en kartlegging av 36 ulike teknologier og forskningsprogram rettet mot et bærekraftig norsk landbruk. Vi har utviklet et verktøy for å vurdere ny teknologi innenfor aspektene teknologisk, markedsmessig og samfunnsmessig modenhet. Gjennomgangen av teknologiene og litteratur på modenhetsvurdering av ny teknologi har resultert i modenhetstabeller og tilhørende spørsmålsbatteri som beskriver ni trinn med økende grad av modenhet.


Article
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Agriculture is a hazardous industry, with a high frequency of injuries. As working life has changed over the last decades, so has also agriculture. In Norway, farm size has increased, and agriculture has become technology intensive with a high amount of automated milking systems (AMS) and is now more dependent on hired help. The aim of the study is by sociotechnical system theory to explore how a new generation of farmers describe their work organisation in relation to occupational health and safety. The study is an explorative interview study at five farms having implemented AMS. An open interview guide was used. The interviews were recorded and thereafter transcribed. Analyses were based on the balance-theory with the domains technology, organisation, physical environment, task design, and individual characteristics. The results show that AMS changes the farm as a sociotechnical work system. AMS is considered a relief with regards how tasks become less physically demanding, less time consuming, and with less animal contact. On the other hand, cognitive demands increase. The results indicate that the technology increases both complexity and vulnerability, these factors being less considered by the farmers. The findings underline the importance of farmers’ increasing awareness of their role as a manager and for an increased system perspective. Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018). IEA 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 825.


Article
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In this article, the aim is to explore how social aspects of the adoption and expansion of milking robots in Norwegian dairy farming are related to the political and structural changes in the sector. To explore the relationship between the implementation of automated milking systems (AMS) and structural developments, we used a qualitative methodology building on data from interviews with farmers, policy documents, statistics, and secondary literature. The structural change in the Norwegian dairy sector was substantial between 2000 and 2018. The average number of cows on each farm increased from 14.4 to 27.9, while the number of farms decreased from around 21,000 to less than 9,000. More than 47 percent of the milk produced in Norway now comes from a dairy farm with an AMS, and this percentage is rapidly increasing. We argue that the structural developments in milk production in Norway are neither politically nor economically driven, but are mainly an unintended consequence of farmers’ aggregated investments in AMS – which are supposed to increase farmers’ everyday quality of life – and reluctant regulatory changes to make investments in AMS structurally and economically viable. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 90–91


Article
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Purpose: The aim of the paper is to explore how advisors’ relational and professional competence influences inter-subjectivity and farmers’ perceptions of farm visits in a setting where advisors have formal power.Methodology: Advisors from the dairy company Tine, which is owned by farmers in collaboration, visit farmers at least once a year. The aim of the visit is to assist farmers in managing the farm and to control the production conditions in the cowshed. In a case study, we attended 10 such mandatory advisor visits and interviewed both farmers and advisors.Findings: Together with advisor style, our findings show that the power relation leaves room for advisors to define their roles widely, ranging from inspector to coach. Advisors have different perceptions of what their jobs are and when they have done a good job. These differences determine the degree of inter-subjectivity and how satisfied farmers are with visits. Furthermore, advisors’ relational and professional competencies are crucial for achieving high inter-subjectivity and satisfied farmers.Theoretical implications: This paper contributes to the theory by identifying factors that influence farmers’ perceptions of advisor visits, as well as by showing the importance of the advisor’s relational and professional competence in a setting where they have formal power.Practical implications: Partly as an outcome of this study, Tine has started a process to separate the control function from farm visits. Tine has also decided to let farmers choose advisors themselves. Originality/value: The power relation in our study differs from most consultant–client interactions in the literature. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, DOI:10.1080/1389224X.2018.1479280


Report

Rådgivning i landbruket – en casestudie, er en rapport som oppsummerer arbeidspakke 2 i forskningsprosjektet Kompetent bonde som har blitt ledet av Ruralis og pågått i perioden 2015 – 2018. Målet med casestudien var todelt: 1) å studere sentrale faktorer for innovasjon og endring av praksis blant bønder og 2) å studere hvilke modeller og metoder som kan bli identifisert i rådgivninga og hvordan disse fungerer. For å svare på forskningsspørsmålene har vi gjennomført casestudier av rådgivningstilbud hos fire av våre samarbeidspartnere i prosjektet: Felleskjøpet, Tine, Norsk Landbruksrådgiving og Nortura. Rapporten oppsummerer resultater fra casestudiene og gir avslutningsvis forslag til tiltak for å styrke kompetanseutvikling i landbruket.


Article
Summary

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to explore how advisors’ relational and professional competence influences inter-subjectivity and farmers’ perceptions of farm visits in a setting where advisors have formal power. Methodology: Advisors from the dairy company Tine, which is owned by farmers in collaboration, visit farmers at least once a year. The aim of the visit is to assist farmers in managing the farm and to control the production conditions in the cowshed. In a case study, we attended 10 such mandatory advisor visits and interviewed both farmers and advisors. Findings: Together with advisor style, our findings show that the power relation leaves room for advisors to define their roles widely, ranging from inspector to coach. Advisors have different perceptions of what their jobs are and when they have done a good job. These differences determine the degree of inter-subjectivity and how satisfied farmers are with visits. Furthermore, advisors’ relational and professional competencies are crucial for achieving high inter-subjectivity and satisfied farmers. Theoretical implications: This paper contributes to the theory by identifying factors that influence farmers’ perceptions of advisor visits, as well as by showing the importance of the advisor’s relational and professional competence in a setting where they have formal power. Practical implications: Partly as an outcome of this study, Tine has started a process to separate the control function from farm visits. Tine has also decided to let farmers choose advisors themselves. Originality/value: The power relation in our study differs from most consultant–client interactions in the literature. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, DOI: 10.1080/1389224X.2018.1479280


Report

Rapporten gir en oversikt over norsk og internasjonal forskning på tema knyttet til rådgiving, kunnskap og innovasjon i jordbruket. Oversikten omfatter også en kort gjennomgang av de mest aktuelle faglige perspektiver som brukes i dag. Rapporten avsluttes med å peke på utfordringer forfatterne mener man har i det norske kunnskaps- og innovasjonssystemet.


Article
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We explored social and political aspects of milking robot (automatic milking system; AMS) use and expansion in dairy farming. Over 30 % of dairy farms in Norway have an AMS, and the percentage is rapidly increasing. We interviewed 26 dairy farmers with AMSs in the county of Rogaland, Norway. Primary motives for investing in milking robots are a more flexible workday, reduced physical work, and a desire to join the perceived future standard of dairy farming. Although farmers are motivated by social factors, AMS is a key element in a structural change driven by political, economic, and social factors. Paper at the 11th International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks


Article
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The aim of this paper is to explore the diversity of farmers’ relationship to the networks that make up the knowledge and innovation systems. We approach farmer’s knowledge diversity through the development of a typology based on a principal component analysis (PCA) of Norwegian farmers. The analysis indicates a preliminary typology of farmers where the main types are: 1) the self-confident farmers; 2) the knowledge-seeking farmers; 3) the knowledge-purchasing farmers; 4) the experienced farmers; 5) the collective- knowledge farmers; and, 6) the well-educated farmers. We discuss how extension service may improve communication, knowledge services, and knowledge networks. Paper at the 11th International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Network


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Purpose: In light of the discussion on ‘best-fit’ in pluralistic advisory systems, this article aims to present and discuss challenges for advisory services in serving various types of farmers when they seek and acquire farm business advice. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical basis is data derived from four workshops, five interviews with staff from advisory organizations, and interviews with 11 farmers. Findings: Emerging configurations serve different types of farmers, that is, private advisors serve different clients in different ways; these could be considered subsystems within the overall advisory system. Practical implications: Best-fit configurations of advisory services exist within a country setting in response to farmers’ information demands and how they seek information, as well as public goals of the advisory system, and lead to advisory subsystems. Policy-makers should monitor the emergence of these subsystems and become active participants in some of them, in line with the concept of the public sector as regulator of private and commercial advisory systems. Theoretical implications: Best-fit has been mainly explored at country level, but this study shows that, within countries, different advisory service configurations are formed. So, best-fit should not be considered at national level only, in view of subsystems which can have wider or narrower boundaries. More broadly, the concept of Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems (AKIS) should not be confined to the national level, for example, in view of farmer specializations within countries and the international dimensions of advisory systems. Originality/value: The originality lies in the further unraveling of heterogeneity within AKIS and what this implies for advisory service delivery configurations.
The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension https://doi.org/10.1080/1389224X.2017.1320640


Article
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This article compares the development of specialty food in Denmark, Norway and Sweden using a number of quantitative indicators as well as a qualitative analysis of government policy. The analysis shows that specialty food has increased in importance in all three countries over the last twenty years, but there are important differences in the kind of specialty food that has developed and the nature of government intervention and governance structures. Overall, Sweden appears to have the largest production of specialty food and drink and is particularly strong in organic production and consumption, farm processing and farm shops. Norway has a large number of products with protected origin and also leads in the number of farmers’ markets. Denmark lags behind the other countries on most indicators, but has witnessed the fastest growth in microbreweries over the last five years. Theoretically, the article challenges the ‘negative’ definition of specialty food as ‘non-industrial’ or ‘alternative’, and suggests a more nuanced approach. Empirically, it points towards the possible existence of a ‘Scandinavian model’ of specialty food governance with extensive interaction between central government, local government and private firms to stimulate the growth of specialty food. European Planning Studies (2016), s. 1111-1128