Article
Summary

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to explore how advisors’ relational and professional competence influences inter-subjectivity and farmers’ perceptions of farm visits in a setting where advisors have formal power.Methodology: Advisors from the dairy company Tine, which is owned by farmers in collaboration, visit farmers at least once a year. The aim of the visit is to assist farmers in managing the farm and to control the production conditions in the cowshed. In a case study, we attended 10 such mandatory advisor visits and interviewed both farmers and advisors.Findings: Together with advisor style, our findings show that the power relation leaves room for advisors to define their roles widely, ranging from inspector to coach. Advisors have different perceptions of what their jobs are and when they have done a good job. These differences determine the degree of inter-subjectivity and how satisfied farmers are with visits. Furthermore, advisors’ relational and professional competencies are crucial for achieving high inter-subjectivity and satisfied farmers.Theoretical implications: This paper contributes to the theory by identifying factors that influence farmers’ perceptions of advisor visits, as well as by showing the importance of the advisor’s relational and professional competence in a setting where they have formal power.Practical implications: Partly as an outcome of this study, Tine has started a process to separate the control function from farm visits. Tine has also decided to let farmers choose advisors themselves. Originality/value: The power relation in our study differs from most consultant–client interactions in the literature. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, DOI:10.1080/1389224X.2018.1479280


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Rådgivning i landbruket – en casestudie, er en rapport som oppsummerer arbeidspakke 2 i forskningsprosjektet Kompetent bonde som har blitt ledet av Ruralis og pågått i perioden 2015 – 2018. Målet med casestudien var todelt: 1) å studere sentrale faktorer for innovasjon og endring av praksis blant bønder og 2) å studere hvilke modeller og metoder som kan bli identifisert i rådgivninga og hvordan disse fungerer. For å svare på forskningsspørsmålene har vi gjennomført casestudier av rådgivningstilbud hos fire av våre samarbeidspartnere i prosjektet: Felleskjøpet, Tine, Norsk Landbruksrådgiving og Nortura. Rapporten oppsummerer resultater fra casestudiene og gir avslutningsvis forslag til tiltak for å styrke kompetanseutvikling i landbruket.


Article
Summary

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to explore how advisors’ relational and professional competence influences inter-subjectivity and farmers’ perceptions of farm visits in a setting where advisors have formal power. Methodology: Advisors from the dairy company Tine, which is owned by farmers in collaboration, visit farmers at least once a year. The aim of the visit is to assist farmers in managing the farm and to control the production conditions in the cowshed. In a case study, we attended 10 such mandatory advisor visits and interviewed both farmers and advisors. Findings: Together with advisor style, our findings show that the power relation leaves room for advisors to define their roles widely, ranging from inspector to coach. Advisors have different perceptions of what their jobs are and when they have done a good job. These differences determine the degree of inter-subjectivity and how satisfied farmers are with visits. Furthermore, advisors’ relational and professional competencies are crucial for achieving high inter-subjectivity and satisfied farmers. Theoretical implications: This paper contributes to the theory by identifying factors that influence farmers’ perceptions of advisor visits, as well as by showing the importance of the advisor’s relational and professional competence in a setting where they have formal power. Practical implications: Partly as an outcome of this study, Tine has started a process to separate the control function from farm visits. Tine has also decided to let farmers choose advisors themselves. Originality/value: The power relation in our study differs from most consultant–client interactions in the literature. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, DOI: 10.1080/1389224X.2018.1479280


  • Gunn-Turid Kvam
  • Susanne von Münchhausen
  • Anna Maria Häring
  • Karlheinz Knickel
Article
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Growing small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMEs) face specific challenges, especially when they aim to maintain a higher quality of products and processes. While growing, they tend to converge either towards niche markets or mainstream commodity markets, and as a result sacrifice higher quality and value. In this article, we explore the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises and their related food supply chains, as well as the related challenges. The focus is on the management of individual businesses, the coordination and cooperation along chains and the required realignment during growth. Particular attention is paid to discontinuities and inconsistencies, and the identification of the factors that limit or enable a sustainable development of food enterprises and chains. The article is based on a case-study approach. The business logic concept, which has been developed in the context of a European research project, provides the analytical framework for the analysis of the cases. Central to the business logic concept is the idea that business goals, strategies, management and management instruments ought to be coherent. The business logic approach facilitates the examination of coherence in business and in chain management. It helps to identify the adjustments and realignment needed in times of change. Our results show that development paths vary significantly between businesses and chains, and that business growth in particular is associated with a variety of challenges. Such discontinuities and inconsistencies tend to be linked with phases of internal consolidation when management capacities, structures and processes are adapted to new requirements. Adaptations in business strategies and operational management are particularly important when food production, processing and sales aim to maintain higher product and process qualities in spite of rapid growth. Reflexive management practices and continuous learning among managers and those in responsible positions, and the related coaching, are key success factors.   Published in: International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food Volume 24, issue 1 (2017), pages 37–55 ISSN: 0798-1759 Authors: Susanne von Münchhausena, Anna Maria Häringa, Gunn-Turid Kvamb and Karlheinz Knickelc Affiliation: aFaculty of Landscape Management and Nature Conservation, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Eberswalde, Germany; bCentre for Rural Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; cInstitute for Rural Development Research, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany


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Rapporten gir en oversikt over norsk og internasjonal forskning på tema knyttet til rådgiving, kunnskap og innovasjon i jordbruket. Oversikten omfatter også en kort gjennomgang av de mest aktuelle faglige perspektiver som brukes i dag. Rapporten avsluttes med å peke på utfordringer forfatterne mener man har i det norske kunnskaps- og innovasjonssystemet.


Article
Summary

In this paper, we explore the global value chain (GVC) for whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and permeate powder (PP) through a study following the practicalities of the export of WPC 80 and PP from the Norwegian farmer - owned dairy cooperative, Tine SA. We follow processing, packaging, logistics and export administration. The study suggests that the value chain and the partnership between Tine and Arla Foods may be described as a “captive” global value chain were Tine is transactional dependent on the main actor, Arla Food Ingredients. We conclude by discussing some features of the global markets for engineered food. Proceedings in System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks 2017


Article
Summary

In this article, we explore the global value chain (GVC) for whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and permeate powder (PP) through a case study following the practicalities of the export of WPC 80 and PP from the Norwegian farmer-owned dairy cooperative, Tine SA. We follow processing, packaging, logistics and export administration. The study suggests that the value chain and the partnership between Tine and Arla Foods may be described as a "captive" global value chain were Tine is transactional dependent on the main actor, Arla Food Ingredients. We conclude by discussing some features of power relations in global value chains and the global markets. International Journal on Food System Dynamics. Vol.8 nr. 4


Article
Summary

Purpose: In light of the discussion on ‘best-fit’ in pluralistic advisory systems, this article aims to present and discuss challenges for advisory services in serving various types of farmers when they seek and acquire farm business advice. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical basis is data derived from four workshops, five interviews with staff from advisory organizations, and interviews with 11 farmers. Findings: Emerging configurations serve different types of farmers, that is, private advisors serve different clients in different ways; these could be considered subsystems within the overall advisory system. Practical implications: Best-fit configurations of advisory services exist within a country setting in response to farmers’ information demands and how they seek information, as well as public goals of the advisory system, and lead to advisory subsystems. Policy-makers should monitor the emergence of these subsystems and become active participants in some of them, in line with the concept of the public sector as regulator of private and commercial advisory systems. Theoretical implications: Best-fit has been mainly explored at country level, but this study shows that, within countries, different advisory service configurations are formed. So, best-fit should not be considered at national level only, in view of subsystems which can have wider or narrower boundaries. More broadly, the concept of Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems (AKIS) should not be confined to the national level, for example, in view of farmer specializations within countries and the international dimensions of advisory systems. Originality/value: The originality lies in the further unraveling of heterogeneity within AKIS and what this implies for advisory service delivery configurations.
The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension https://doi.org/10.1080/1389224X.2017.1320640


Article
Summary

A main challenge when organic food actors cooperate with conventional food actors is to maintain their identity in the relationship. In this paper, we analyse such a relationship through the use of the industrial marketing and purchasing perspective (IMP). The aim is to increase knowledge about changes in relationships that occur through growth processes and about how new relationships influence the identity of a quality-oriented firm. We use a case-study method when examining the relationship between the organic Røros Dairy and the retail chain Coop, and its effects on relationships within the dairy network. Results show that the focal relationship influences, and in turn is influenced by, the dairy’s network. Because of the dairy’s strong identity that preceded its formal cooperation with Coop, as well as its reputation for quality production and continuous product development, the dairy has strengthened its position in the network. We conclude that the IMP perspective contributes a valuable framework in this study of an organic food network. For business managers, our results highlight the importance of considering possible effects of relationships on the identity one would want to convey. European Planning Studies. vol. 25 (7)


Article
Summary

– The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of growth processes of speciality food firms and how these processes influence the producers' perception of quality demands of the products.
– A case study approach was chosen covering four specialty food companies in Norway. This explorative study was conducted from the producer's perspective.
– Results show that, as part of growth processes, firms invest in different activities to strengthen the quality of their products to achieve distinctiveness in more competitive markets. The most important quality that contributes to distinctiveness and increased value seems to be traditional handicraft production processes. In some cases, expensive and time-consuming processes are invested in developing qualities that are not transformed into higher value in the market.
– The number of cases is too small for statistical analysis, but this explorative case study may provide a basis for a survey of a larger sample of firms.
– The study indicates a need for companies to gain more knowledge about consumers' preferences and behaviour, and to develop product qualities and market communication accordingly.
– Research is scarce on obstacles to growth in specialty food firms. This study contributes important knowledge to enhance further development of the industry.
  British Food Journal, 116 (4): 723- 732


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I denne boka undersøker forskere en rekke sider ved turisme i distriktene. De gir svar på noen sentrale spørsmål: Hvor stor er omsetningen i den distriktsbaserte turismen? Hva avgjør turistenes tilfredshet med en destinasjon? Kan bygdeturismen være innovativ? Hvilket forhold har reisende til lokal mat? Finnes det noen suksessoppskrift for utvikling av vinterturisme? Turisme i distriktene er ei bok for alle som lever av turisme i distriktene eller planlegger å gjøre dette, og den retter seg også mot myndigheter, støtteapparat og andre som berøres av turisme.Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag