Writers: Jostein Vik, Eirik Magnus Fuglestad and Emil ØversveenSince the early 2010s, increased centre-periphery tensions have arisen across the Western Hemisphere and have had a significant influence on domestic policies. Analysts have explained this as an effect of economic inequalities and rural marginalisation. In this article it is argued that rural upheavals and centre-periphery conflicts can be caused by processes of alienation. The authors’ analysis is based on existing literature and statistics, as well as their own previously published research. From the case of Norway, they suggest that rural and peripheral upheavals can be explained as alienation caused by a combination of two different phenomena: ongoing transitions within the rural political economy of nature-based industries and sectors, and changes in the role of the modern welfare state, towards a state that in several key policy areas withdraws from the peripheries. Combined, these economic and political developments have produced a state of rural alienation and sharpening centre-periphery tensions, even in the absence of marginalisation and increases in economic inequality. In conclusion, the main argument of the article is that combined, such economic and political developments have produced a state of rural alienation and sharpening centre-periphery tensions, even in the absence of marginalisation and increases in economic inequality. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, https://doi.org/10.1080/00291951.2022.2111270
Writers: Renate M. B. Hårstad og Jostein VikIn this article, we draw from qualitative interviews with political parties' representatives and a content analysis of party programs to identify how political parties frame animal welfare policies in Norway. In analyzing the framing of animal welfare and its significance for understanding agricultural post-exceptionalism, we found that though they frame animal welfare issues in conflicting ways, most see Norwegian animal welfare as reasonably good but perceive potential for improvement. They also generally understand societal claims as lacking or having an unclear factual basis, which has legitimized their nonaction as political parties. Even so, because of active new actors such as animal welfare organizations and retailers, the parties do not believe that public pressure will wane. Although introducing new farm animal welfare policies can represent a move towards post-exceptionalism in Europe's agri-food sector, the discourse on animal welfare policies amongst political parties implies that such is not the case in Norway. European Policy Analysis, https://doi.org/10.1002/epa2.1154
This report summarizes the results and recommendations from the three-year project Smart technology for sustainable agriculture (SmaT, 2018-2021). SmaT was a collaboration between the Norwegian agricultural cooperative Felleskjøpet Agri, the Norwegian agricultural extension service Norsk landbrukssamvirke, the agricultural secondary school Mære landbruksskole, and researchers from Ruralis and NTNU. Technology-oriented farmers and other professionals have also taken part in the collaboration. The work was funded by the Agriculture and Food Industry Research Funds, and through in-kind contributions from the project’s user partners.
Many agricultural researchers are now turning away from the traditional postal surveys to email surveys of farmers – an option that is increasingly viable as digitalisation continues to permeate rural areas. However, email surveys often result in considerably lower response rates. This raises questions about the potential of email surveys to experience non-response bias, where the survey methodology excludes particular sectors of the general population and thus results in responses that do not represent the wider population. In this paper we address the issue of whether agricultural researchers should move from postal surveys to email surveys by comparing the results of two applications of the Norwegian national Trends survey – one to 3000 farmers via email and one to 3000 farmers via standard mail. The postal survey achieved a response rate of 41.1% – almost double that of the email survey at 21.4%. However, analysis of the returns suggested this had not led to greater non-response bias in the email survey. While respondents to the email survey were younger, better educated and more likely to be part-time farmers, comparing the entire survey revealed very few significant differences between the two samples. Where the difference was significant (in particular, attitudes towards technology), the scalar difference was so small that using different survey methods would not have led to different conclusions. Although there was no evidence that the low response rate compromised the email survey, we conclude that postal surveys may still be preferable because (a) there is less scope for non-response bias, and (b) having to double the gross survey size to achieve a sufficient sample size may create additional survey fatigue in the long term. We discuss the applicability of the findings to farm surveys in other countries. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2021.09.029
In this paper a methodology for a balanced readiness assessment of novel agricultural technologies is developed and presented. The methodology expand on the well-known Technology Readiness Level (TRL) assessments, with a method for assessing TRL as well as Market Readiness Level (MRL), Regulatory Readiness Level (RRL), Acceptance Readiness Level (ARL), and Organizational Readiness Level (ORL) in concert. In the article the Balanced Readiness Level assessment (BRLa) methodology is employed and illustrated on 1) a set of 36 novel agricultural technologies, and 2) on the development of a technology for virtual agricultural fences. The empirical applications in this article indicates that the BRLa- methodology may serve as a fruitful approach for a compound assessment of emerging technologies. The methdodology is relevant for actors involved in advisory services, funding, investment and technology development.
I Almås, Reidar og Eirik M. Fuglestad (red.) Distriktsopprør – periferien på nytt i sentrum. Dreyers Forlag Oslo
Klimaendringer, befolkningsvekst og behovet for økt matproduksjon skaper utfordringer for landbruket. En del av løsningen for landbruket er å forbedre praksis ved hjelp av miljøvennlig innovasjon. Teknologiutviklingen i landbruket skjer fort og har økende oppmerksomhet på presisjonsdyrking, digitalisering og automatisering for et mer bærekraftig landbruk. Det er et behov for å forstå hvordan utviklingen skjer, hvor langt vi er kommet, og hvordan vi skal møte teknologiutviklingen og legge til rette for den. Dette notatet beskriver innovasjonsprosesser og begreper knyttet til modenhetsmåling. Det har blitt gjennomført en kartlegging av 36 ulike teknologier og forskningsprogram rettet mot et bærekraftig norsk landbruk. Vi har utviklet et verktøy for å vurdere ny teknologi innenfor aspektene teknologisk, markedsmessig og samfunnsmessig modenhet. Gjennomgangen av teknologiene og litteratur på modenhetsvurdering av ny teknologi har resultert i modenhetstabeller og tilhørende spørsmålsbatteri som beskriver ni trinn med økende grad av modenhet.
In this article, the aim is to explore how social aspects of the adoption and expansion of milking robots in Norwegian dairy farming are related to the political and structural changes in the sector. To explore the relationship between the implementation of automated milking systems (AMS) and structural developments, we used a qualitative methodology building on data from interviews with farmers, policy documents, statistics, and secondary literature. The structural change in the Norwegian dairy sector was substantial between 2000 and 2018. The average number of cows on each farm increased from 14.4 to 27.9, while the number of farms decreased from around 21,000 to less than 9,000. More than 47 percent of the milk produced in Norway now comes from a dairy farm with an AMS, and this percentage is rapidly increasing. We argue that the structural developments in milk production in Norway are neither politically nor economically driven, but are mainly an unintended consequence of farmers’ aggregated investments in AMS – which are supposed to increase farmers’ everyday quality of life – and reluctant regulatory changes to make investments in AMS structurally and economically viable. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 90–91
Trender i norsk landbruk er en postal spørreundersøkelse blant norske gårdbrukere som gjennomføres av Ruralis – Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning. Undersøkelsen er blitt gjennomført hvert andre år siden 2002, som dermed gjør at årets undersøkelse er den niende i rekken. Målet er å få etablert en kvantitativ tidsserie som gir informasjon om utviklingen innen landbruket over tid. I tillegg til strukturelle sider ved landbruket, dekker spørreundersøkelsen også sosiokulturelle tema som ikke kommer frem i den registerbaserte statistikken. Rapporten består av fire hoveddeler: 1) Undersøkelsens formål og profil, 2) gjennomføring av undersøkelsen og metode, 3) resultater og hovedtrender fra undersøkelsen, og 4) ukommenterte frekvenstabeller med oversikt over hvordan deltakerne i undersøkelsen fordeler seg på de ulike svarkategoriene for hvert spørsmål.
Denne rapporten oppsummerer prosjektet «Budsjettstøtte og oppnåelse av politiske mål for landbruket» som har pågått fra våren 2016 til 30. november 2017. Formålet med prosjektet har vært å styrke beslutningsgrunnlaget i utforming og forvaltning av landbrukspolitiske virkemidler ved å framskaffe kunnskap om hvordan budsjettstøtten bidrar til å oppfylle landbrukspolitiske mål.
In this paper, we explore the global value chain (GVC) for whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and permeate powder (PP) through a study following the practicalities of the export of WPC 80 and PP from the Norwegian farmer - owned dairy cooperative, Tine SA. We follow processing, packaging, logistics and export administration. The study suggests that the value chain and the partnership between Tine and Arla Foods may be described as a “captive” global value chain were Tine is transactional dependent on the main actor, Arla Food Ingredients. We conclude by discussing some features of the global markets for engineered food. Proceedings in System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks 2017
We explored social and political aspects of milking robot (automatic milking system; AMS) use and expansion in dairy farming. Over 30 % of dairy farms in Norway have an AMS, and the percentage is rapidly increasing. We interviewed 26 dairy farmers with AMSs in the county of Rogaland, Norway. Primary motives for investing in milking robots are a more flexible workday, reduced physical work, and a desire to join the perceived future standard of dairy farming. Although farmers are motivated by social factors, AMS is a key element in a structural change driven by political, economic, and social factors. Paper at the 11th International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks
The aim of this paper is to explore the diversity of farmers’ relationship to the networks that make up the knowledge and innovation systems. We approach farmer’s knowledge diversity through the development of a typology based on a principal component analysis (PCA) of Norwegian farmers. The analysis indicates a preliminary typology of farmers where the main types are: 1) the self-confident farmers; 2) the knowledge-seeking farmers; 3) the knowledge-purchasing farmers; 4) the experienced farmers; 5) the collective- knowledge farmers; and, 6) the well-educated farmers. We discuss how extension service may improve communication, knowledge services, and knowledge networks. Paper at the 11th International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Network
In this article, we explore the global value chain (GVC) for whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and permeate powder (PP) through a case study following the practicalities of the export of WPC 80 and PP from the Norwegian farmer-owned dairy cooperative, Tine SA. We follow processing, packaging, logistics and export administration. The study suggests that the value chain and the partnership between Tine and Arla Foods may be described as a "captive" global value chain were Tine is transactional dependent on the main actor, Arla Food Ingredients. We conclude by discussing some features of power relations in global value chains and the global markets. International Journal on Food System Dynamics. Vol.8 nr. 4
Up until recent years, all agricultural production in Norway was strictly regulated through spatial policy (location), production quotas and other price and market regulations. Prices and products were handled by the farmers' cooperatives. International (e.g. WTO agreements) and domestic pressure has gradually loosened the governmental regulation of chicken and eggs. Economic (e.g. new ownerships), technological (innovations throughout the whole chain), political and institutional (liberalization) and cultural (e.g. in consumption and farming) changes have reconfigured the landscapes of chicken meat production, opening up new opportunities for the chicken industry. Chicken therefore makes a particularly good case for exploring recent major changes in the agri-food system. In this chapter, we investigate evolving rules, risks, challenges and opportunities in and around chicken meat value chains. Empirically, we build on interviews, document studies and statistics on the structural development of the chicken industry and we discuss how these changes are developing in other parts of the Norwegian agri-food system. Rural Sociology and Development Vol. 24., pp. 45-69
It has gained interests among researchers in recent years because of its agronomic and environmental benefits. It is considered to increase soil fertility and crop productivity, and biochar might play an important role as a climate mitigation tool that is able to capture carbon in the soil. However, although research has focused on the chemical, biological, and technical aspects of biochar, we seem to be far away from the implementation of a functioning biochar system. One key aspect needed for the actual use of biochar technologies is increased awareness and emphasis on the social and organizational aspects of its implementation. As there are no functional markets for the services and products needed to ‘produce’ a biochar system, political and market devices are needed. This paper contributes to this debate by introducing a socio-technical framework that investigates the implementation of different biochar technologies in Norway. Based on this socio-technical system framework, we discuss necessary components of a sustainable biochar socio-technical system, and we outline variations of this system based on different levels of biochar production scaling. Technology and Society, Volume 51, November 2017, Pages 34-45