Writers: Magnar Forbord, Maja Farstad, Jostein Brobakk, Rob Burton, Lennart Kokemohr, Brit Logstein, Anders M. Melås, Klaus Mittenzwei, Pia OtteJordbruket er avhengig av klimaet – og bidrar til klimaet. De senere årene har det vist seg at jordbruket, sammen med de fleste andre sektorer i samfunnet, bidrar til høyere klimagassutslipp (CO2, N20, CH4) enn det som er ønskelig.
I Bjørkhaug, Hilde, Philip McMichael og Bruce Muirhead (red.) Finance or Food?: The Role of Cultures, Values, and Ethics in Land Use Negotiations. University of Toronto Press
Rapporten viser resultater fra analyser av tidligere miljøaksjoner som involverte norsk landbruk: Mjøsaksjonen (1973-1982) og Morsa-prosjektet (om utbedring av miljøstatusen i vassdrag i tidligere Østfold fylke, fra 1999-2007). Resultatene munner ut i en serie læringspunkter. Formålet med å utarbeide læringspunkter med bakgrunn i analyse av to miljøaksjoner er å bidra til kunnskapsutvikling. I CLIMPLEMENT-prosjektet er ambisjonen å beskrive prosesser og løsninger som kan bidra til vellykket iverksetting av klimapolitiske tiltak på bruksnivå i norsk landbruk, bl.a. ved å beskrive og analysere tidligere miljøtilpasninger i jordbrukssektoren. I siste instans kan kunnskapen fra CLIMPLEMENT bidra til fremtidig politikkutforming på feltet.
Denne rapporten undersøker innbyggernes oppfatning av innbyggermedvirkning i fire sammenslåtte kommuner: Bodø (tidligere Bodø og Skjerstad), Aure (tidligere Aure og Tustna), Kristiansund (tidligere Kristiansund og Frei) og Vindafjord (tidligere Vindafjord og Ølen). Rapporten baserer seg på en spørreundersøkelse i befolkningen i de fire sammenslåtte kommunene.
I Bjørkhaug, Hilde, André Magnan og Geoffrey Lawrence (red.) The Financialization of Agri-Food Systems: Contested Transformations, s. 42-61. London: Routledge
Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time, and particularly so for agriculture. Agriculture is a significant contributor to climate change and, according to projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), will experience alterations in production conditions in the future. The Norwegian government’s 2009 White Paper on climate policy for agriculture is based on the point of view that the agricultural sector can and should contribute to Norway fulfilling its climate policy commitments. This requires changes in farm operations and production methods, making the farmer an important agent when it comes to the implementation of climate change mitigation measures. In this article, I study Norwegian farmers’ climate change perceptions and priorities, and examine what it would take for them to consider implementing mitigation measures on their own farms. The analysis is based on a survey focusing on climate change from a representative sample of Norwegian farmers in 2011, the only survey of its kind conducted on this group so far. The results show that even if farmers perceive climate change as real and manmade, they do not appear to experience the changes as requiring immediate action. Moreover, farmers seem to view adapting to new environmental policy as a greater challenge than adapting to climate change itself. Farmers also appear to place production-related goals and managing the farm economy higher on the agenda than curbing emissions. Financial incentives, in the form of public support schemes or higher prices for food produced in a more environmentally friendly way, are factors which could increase the likelihood of implementing environmental measures on their own farms. A majority of farmers also believe that sectors other than agriculture should contribute more to cuts in greenhouse gases. Factors that most clearly explain the variation in attitudes to climate change are education levels, political or ideological factors, and the feeling of proximity; that is to say, to what extent one perceives climate change to be something that will affect one’s own productivity in the future. In order to fulfill environmental policy commitments in the agricultural sector, farmers’ motivation must be strengthened, and the focus should be placed on measures that view productivity goals, farm economies and mitigation measures in a wider context. World Political Science, 14(1): 55-79
In this article I study Norwegian farmers’ climate change perceptions, their priorities and what it takes to consider undertaking mitigation measures. The analysis is based on a climate change survey from a representative sample of Norwegian farmers in 2011, the only survey of its kind conducted among Norwegian farmers so far. The results show that even if farmers perceive climate change as real and man-made, they do not act as if it is acute. Further, they view climate policy adaptation as a greater challenge than adapting to climate change itself. The farmers also put production-related goals and managing the farm economy higher on the agenda than emission cuts. According to the farmers, factors that will increase the likelihood of implementing mitigation measures at the farm is a combination of public support schemes and increased prices for food produced in a more climate friendly way. A majority of the farmers also believe that other sectors should contribute more to GHG-cuts than agriculture. Variables explaining climate change perceptions are level of education and knowledge, ideological and political position (or ‘world view’), and the feeling of proximity to (negative) climate change effects. In order to reach climate policy goals in the agricultural sector, the motivation of the farmers to implement measures must be increased. Norsk statsvitenskaplige tidsskrift, 33, 3-4–2017, s. 272–291
This article explores the potential for farmers to become climate citizens. Drawing on in-depth interviews, we analyse how Norwegian farmers relate to climate change in their everyday farming practises. After discussing the concepts of environmental and ecological citizenship, we propose the climate citizen approach to meet the challenges that climate change poses to agriculture. Until now, Norwegian farmers’ response to climate change has been limited. Major changes in farming practises seem unlikely without incentives from the state. A climate citizen approach can help balance a response to institutional regulations and policies with the individual moral obligation to take personal and non-reciprocal responsibility for the planet. In order to influence how farmers might incorporate climate change awareness into their everyday practises, policy makers should take existing norms and values in the agricultural community into account and adopt clear and manageable instruments to reward farmers for taking adaptive measures. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2017.1381075
R.Almås, H. Bjørkhaug, H. Campbell og C.A. Smedshaug (red). Fram mot ein berekraftig og klimatilpassa norsk landbruksmodell. Trondheim: Akademia forlag, 275-299
Almås, R. and H. Campbell (eds.) Rethinking agricultural policy regimes: Food security, climate change and the future resilience of global agriculture. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing, 211-234
Almås, R. and H. Campbell (eds.) Rethinking agricultural policy regimes: Food security, climate change and the future resilience of global agriculture. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing, 169-189
In early 2007 food prices started to increase dramatically, creating more hunger, social unrest, political protest, and a debate on causes and cures. According to the FAO the number of people getting less food than necessary reached 1 billion. After a century of declining food prices, increased productivity and relative stability several curves started to shift. Due to production growth levelling out and a steady increase in the global demand for food, in addition to policy changes in the food sector, public food stocks declined and the market situation became tighter. As a result, the global food market became more vulnerable to external shocks, like negative impact from climate-related change, growing demand from the bio-fuel sector, and speculation in food commodities. By focusing on supply and demand forces in the food market, the growth in bio-fuel production, and financial speculation, we ask what caused food prices to peak in 2008, and which factors are the most important in explaining the events. In our view, deregulations within the financial sector led to extreme levels of financial capital entering the food commodity market, contributed to prices increasing more and faster than can be explained by supply and demand forces alone. Even if the growth in bio-fuel production by many is held as a climate change mitigation measure, and production short-falls over the last decade are caused by severe weather events, we do not believe that climate change directly or indirectly caused food prices to peak in 2008. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 18(3):237-280