Rapport
Sammendrag Last ned PDF

This report presents a main deliverable of work package 3 in the Coolcrowd project, an international research project funded by the Research Council of Norway. The aim of the project is to develop a crowdfunding program that would enable travelers to offset their GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions locally by supporting Norwegian farmers who want to adopt more climate friendly practices. The main objective of WP3 is to identify farmers’ interest in participating in a locally crowdfunded climate program. The report analyzes the findings of a national survey investigating farmers’ interest in climate change, particularly mitigation and a local crowdfunding program.


Artikkel
Sammendrag

Many agricultural technology interventions that aim to improve farmers’ livelihoods focus on households as the unit of analysis and ignore gender roles that entail different benefits and costs for different household members. Agricultural projects have shown limited success where gender roles and relations were ignored and thus more gender sensitive research is needed in agricultural technology development to ensure social acceptance. In this study, we address this need by investigating the importance of gender roles and relations in the case of solar fruit drying in Mozambique. We apply a variety of gender sensitive participatory methods that enable farmers to actively take part in the technology development process. First results indicate that the costs and benefits of solar fruit drying are not shared equally between genders. Women have much less time available for using the solar fruit dryer. The data also indicate that certain steps in the solar fruit drying process are clearly gender divided. We finally discuss potential mechanisms that can be applied in agricultural technology projects that can create awareness of the risk to reproduce traditional gender roles and unequal relations in the development process of new agricultural technologies. Gender Technology and Development, 22(1), 40-58, DOI: 10.1080/09718524.2018.1444442


Artikkel
Sammendrag

Purpose: In this paper, we discuss the role of participatory research in integrated agricultural technology development using the example of a solar fruit drying project in Mozambique. Design/methodology/approach: We engage in seven participatory exercises with groups of farmers from two farmers’ associations in Inharrime district in Mozambique to identify their needs for solar fruit drying that are crucial for solar dryer technology design. We focus in the analysis on three of these exercises including a daily schedule exercise, SWOT (Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats) analysis and technology requirement exercise. Findings: Participatory research takes a dual function for integrated agricultural technology development. First, it can help to identify the technology needs of farmers and second it can enable the exchange and creation of different sets of knowledge for agricultural technology development between multiple stakeholders. Practical implications: Participatory research provides a tool for joint knowledge exchange and creation, which allows the identified technology requirements to be translated into practical technology design. Theoretical implications: This paper extends the concept of integrated research to integrated agricultural technology development and shows how participatory research is a tool that enables transdisciplinarity, which presents the most desired form of integrated research. Originality: This research is highly relevant for researchers working in an interdisciplinary environment with agricultural technology development in cross-cultural contexts. From a meta-level perspective, it provides insights for joint and integrated technology development. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, doi.org/10.1080/1389224X.2018.1461662


Artikkel
Sammendrag

It has gained interests among researchers in recent years because of its agronomic and environmental benefits. It is considered to increase soil fertility and crop productivity, and biochar might play an important role as a climate mitigation tool that is able to capture carbon in the soil. However, although research has focused on the chemical, biological, and technical aspects of biochar, we seem to be far away from the implementation of a functioning biochar system. One key aspect needed for the actual use of biochar technologies is increased awareness and emphasis on the social and organizational aspects of its implementation. As there are no functional markets for the services and products needed to ‘produce’ a biochar system, political and market devices are needed. This paper contributes to this debate by introducing a socio-technical framework that investigates the implementation of different biochar technologies in Norway. Based on this socio-technical system framework, we discuss necessary components of a sustainable biochar socio-technical system, and we outline variations of this system based on different levels of biochar production scaling. Technology and Society, Volume 51, November 2017, Pages 34-45


Artikkel
Sammendrag

Universities are understood to play an essential role in the promotion of sustainable development. However, the recognition of sustainable development in higher education poses multiple challenges to the traditional higher education system. This article introduces a course concept called ‘Experts in Teams’ (EiT) as a new platform of learning which makes use of experience-based learning to address sustainable development in an academic context. The article investigates the ways in which these new forms of learning lead to sustainable lifestyle behavioural changes among participants. Based on the results from the case study, the article presents a combined framework for implementing sustainable development as part of a curriculum that not only provides theoretical education about the topic but also furthers a behavioural change among its participants towards more pro-environmental actions. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development 10(1), 1–29


Artikkel
Sammendrag

Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by insufficient access to modern energy. One solution to this problem could be the use of solar energy to satisfy the current energy demand. However, solar energy technologies have shown limited success up to now. In the literature it is argued that solar cookers are often implemented as a “solution looking for a problem”, without consideration of the end-user needs. This study contributes to this debate by investigating the energy patterns and cooking profiles of public institutions for the design and implementation of solar cookers in the case of Mozambique. Interviews were conducted with 12 health institutions in Maputo and Sofala province in Mozambique.The paper concludes that solar cooking presents one solution to overcome the energy crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa but not the only solution. Solar cookers could improve the current cooking situation if combined with heat storage, back up, or a hybrid system that ensures reliability also during evening hours and rainy days. In general we could see that solar cookers should fulfill a variety of requirements related to cooking habits, schedule of daily routine and performance that are considered to enhance levels of use. Energy Policy, DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2014.06.032


Artikkel
Sammendrag

In developing countries households and institutions heavily rely on biomass to satisfy their energy needs. The unsustainable use of biomass is accompanied by several negative health and environmental impacts. As a clean energy source, solar cooking presents one alternative solution. In spite of its multiple benefits; however, solar cookers have experienced little success. Curiously, there has been little discussion about this in academic circles. Most research concerns technical improvements of solar cookers, rather than on the reasons why these cookers are not actually adopted in the field. This paper fills the gap by developing a comprehensive list of variables that influence the adoption of solar cooking: (1) economic, (2) social, (3) cultural, (4) environmental, (5) political and (6) technical. Furthermore, we can see that some solar cooking promoters are able to control for some of the variables (e.g., environmental factors), but not others (e.g. technical, social and cultural factors). The latter can only be captured through a needs assessment of the target group. This sort of assessment is a demanding but necessary step for the successful outcome of a solar cooking project. Energy Policy, 63, 375-381